Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

MONTHLY

2015 No 1 (369)

ONTENTS. SUMMARIES

TOSHCHENKO Zh. About a quality of scientific publications p. 3

SOCIOECONOMIC AND SOCIO-CULTURAL MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIA’S REGIONS

LAPIN N.I. (Institute of philosophy, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia) Crucial theoretical and methodological aspects of Russian modernization studies p. 5

Summary. The paper is a theoretical and methodological introduction to the series of articles to be published in ‘Sociological Studies’ and aimed at the state and issues of socioeconomic and socio-cultural components of modernization in various regions of key Russian federal districts. Charactieristics of modernization as a process of civilization in the twenty-first century is demonstrated by four component parts and six states (types) of modernization of regions. Imbalance of modernization processes and trends in the Federal districts are shown. Stages of integrated strategy modernization of Russian regions and minimax-strategy of enhancing the well-being of the population are argued for.

Key words: component parts of modernization • state of modernization • integrated modernization • stages of modernization • minimax-strategy • improvement of well being of the population

RASOV V.. (Branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Cheboksary, Russia), BOYKO I.I. (Chuvash state university of humanities, Cheboksary, Russia), KHARITONOVA V.G. (Chuvash state university of humanities, Cheboksary, Russia) Uneven modernization of Volga federal district regions p. 11

Summary. Levels and dynamics of modernization in the Volga federal district regions are analyzed). Components parts and levels of modernization are characterized stressing balanced modernization parameters and factors for deceleration. Statistical processing of panel data for the period of 2005–2010 permitted the authors to find empirical support for the hypothesis about positive impact and synergy effect of the balance factor on the results of modernization, thus demonstrating feasibility of a phased development of regional modernization in terms of its non-uniformity of rational sequencing phase dynamics.

y words: dynamics of regional modernization • stages, phases and component parts of regional modernization • balance of component parts and stages of modernization

ROMASHKINA G.F. (Financial economic institute of the Tyumen’ state university, Tyumen’ Russia) Modernization processes in the regions of Urals federal district p. 19

Summary. Modernization processes in the Urals federal district are analyzed using comparisons with median rates in Russia. Impact of institutional traps is stated. Principal contradiction is allegedly generated by the fact that successfully (with regard to social economic and socio-cultural aspects) developing regions belie the progress in the realm of modernization changes. Axes of deceleration are demonstrated; factors and stages of integrated modernization are found out.

y words: modernization • technology, socio-cultural, economic indices • values • social moods • Urals federal district

NEMIROVSKIY V.G. (Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia), POLOVINKO V.S. (F.M. Dostoyevskiy State University, Omsk Russia) Feasibility of the Siberian federal district regions modernization and the role of its sociocultural component p. 27

Summary. The paper analyzes issues of social and cultural modernization in the regions of Siberian federal district. Modernization processes are assessed using the methodology and analytical tools developed by the Center for the Study of modernization the Chinese Academy of Science, adapted to Russian statistical data by the Centre for the Study of Socio-cultural Change the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Science, under the supervision of N.I. Lapin and L.A. Belyaeva. It is concluded that current process of modernization is nonlinear and erratic in different regions of Siberia. Until now, this macro-region serves mainly as a resource store for Russia, thus making possibility of modernization throwback more likely to happen.

y words: Siberian federal district • socio-cultural component of modernization• chronotypology of modernization

SOCIAL POLICIES. SOCIAL STRUCTURE

GORSHKOV M.K. (Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia) Middle class as reflection of economic and socio-cultural model of contemporary Russia’s development p. 35

Summary. Recent all-Russian studies done by istitute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences permit to analyze economic and socio-cultural characteristics of Russian middle class as an aspect of Russia’s development model. Maximum resource for growth of that class constituting some 40% of Russia’s economically active population at the time of the study does not exceed 8 to 10 per cent of overall country population. Middle class has certain advantages compared to other social shifts and groups: better material and living conditions, and higher professional status. Some problems are also stated: remarkable decline in power resource, uncertainty in future, greater share of simple leisure – in contrast to active type leisure. Consensus between state and middle class is feasible concerning obligations to resolve social problems However, consensus is until now absent.

Keywords: middle • Russia’s development • economic factors • socio-cultural factors • evolution

IKHNV N.. (National research university ‘Higher school of Economics’, Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia) Middle class identity and consumption specifics p. 44

Summary. The paper is built on the data of all-Russian surveys carried out in recent few years by the Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences focusing on middle class dynamics, its place in the societal structure, its identification features, dominant position in it of the lower middle class layer caused by professional structure of Russia’s economy. Also, way of life and consumption preferences of this class as well as eventual scope and pre-conditions for its growth is discussed.

y words: middle class • middle strata • social structure • social stratification • styles of life • identities • consumption standards

REEVA S.V. (Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, National research university ‘Higher school of Economics’, Moscow, Russia) Value orientations and views of middle class about desirable vector of country’s development p. 55

Summary. Data of all-Russian surveys carried out in 2013 and 2014 by the Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences permitted to look into norms and values of Russian middle class, its views on the desirable vector of country’s development. Values that guide middle class members in their everyday life are of modernized activist kind, a fact that differentiates them from other population groups, while political values and attitudes to further development of the country do practically not. Among middle class members (and the rest of Russians), there is a consensus on the rejection of copying Western development model and of Russia’s “special path” into the future. This is a result of specific norms and values, as well as the middle class attitude to private property, rule of law etc.

y words: middle class • middle strata • norms • values • political attitudes • private property • modernization • cultural dynamics • Western path of development

HODOLOGY AND METHODS OF SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

KOZINA I.., SEREZHKINA .V. (both authors – National research University ‘Higher school of Economics’, Moscow, Russia) Case-study concept in social sciences and French traditions of labor organization monographic studies p. 64

Summary. Making and development of case-study concept are discussed in context of methodological discussion among sociologists about limitations and explanatory scope of the method. Varieties of theoretical and methodological approaches are demonstrated using a series of comparative monographic studies in labor organizations in France.

y words: case-study • monographic study • French sociology • labor organizations

FEDOROV P.. (P.A. Stolypin Volga Institute of administration, Saratov, Russia) n comparability of cross-cultural studies (the case of attitudes measurement to migrants) p. 73

Summary. Secondary analysis of international sociological studies data is carried out as well as data contained in European social survey and World values study. Conceptual apparatus of these studies is analyzed displayed in different treatment of essential meanings of basis ideas featured by representatives of varying cultures. Differences in attitude structures among Russians vis-à-vis European countries cilizens are stated. Suggestions are made concerning causes of discovered differences.

y words: migrant • social attitude • cross-cultural study • European value studies • World value studies • secondary analysis • factor analysis

LEBEDEVA I.P. (National research university, Perm’, Russia) Soft models as a form of the mathematization of social knowledge p. 79

Summary. Outlook for mathematization of sociological knowledge basing on the use of soft models to render approximate description of hard model class. They are co-related with the goals of empirical and theoretical sociology that determines levels of knowledge representation. Classification of soft stochastic models is suggested, which permits to take into consideration heuristic degree of mathematical modeling of social systems.

y words: sociological knowledge • mathematic knowledge • soft model • hard model • statistic methods

SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH

KRAVTCHENKO S.A. (Institute of international relations (University), Ministry of Foreign affairs, Moscow, Russia Social and cultural dynamics of food: gains and vulnerabilities p. 85

Summary. Social and cultural dynamics become faster and more complex thus impacting functions of life values including character of food consumption. Arguably, industrialization, rationalization and globalization have ambivalent consequences for human beings today. On the one hand, food consumption leaves its local cultural, seasonal and climatic context, becomes more efficiently and less time-consuming; its quality is controlled. On the other, – reflection of food by human beings becomes manipulated by global businesses pursuing pragmatic interests by means of imposing cosmopolitan food and respective tastes. Thus, new aspects of de-humanization and alienation do emerge along with culturally conditioned diseases. This is a background for sociologists' efforts to re-discover explicit and latent functions of eating and analyze new vulnerabilities.

y words: social and cultural dynamics • food • agrarian revolutions • vulnerabilities • hierarchy of eating • cosmopolitan food • cosmopolitan taste • hybrid food • fast food • performative food

VESELOV Yu.V. (St.-Petersburg state University, St.-Petersburg, Russia) Routine practices of nutrition Routine practices of nutrition p. 95

Summary. The article deals with the material structures of everyday social practices of nutrition. In the western sociology this field was developed in the sociology of food. Russian sociology makes only its first steps in this direction although sociological background of this field was founded in Russia by P.A. Sorokin in 1920-s. Empirical studies in this field of research are growing while methodological study is still needed. Attempt is made to fill the gap. Three methodological approaches of the sociological study of food are discussed: functionalism, structuralism, and materialism.

y words: sociology of food • social system of nutrition • food and drinks • taste • consumption

ANNIVERSARIES

Zh. TOSHCHENKO is 80! p. 105

TOSHCHENKO Zh.. “Sociological Studies” journal, Russian academy of sciences, Russian state university for humanities, Institute of sociology Moscow, Russia Sociology of life as a theoretical conception p. 106

Summary. Evolution of sociology of life is scrutinized as an idea accumulating achievement of fundamental and special sociological theories. Building on varying interpretations of societal processes, sociology of life embraces treatment of main components, which – in a certain proportion or certain aspect – are present in every sociological study: social (group or individual) consciousness, behavior (activity) and surrounding macro-, mezzo- and micro-environment. This inextricable unity of consciousness, behavior, environment, when studied on empiric level, forms life world, a notion opening vistas for obtaining new knowledge in investigations fundamental and applied social problems.

y words: philosophy of life • phenomenology • everyday life • sociology of life • social planning • way of life • life world

CHAIR. CONSULTATIONS

SHAFRANOV-UTSEV G.F. (Tyumen’ state university, Tyumen’, Russia) ntemporary challenges and realities of professional orientation efforts within the system ‘school – university – labor market’ p. 120

Summary. Cultural moral values and social professional interests of high school students are discussed, as well as factors shaping them. It is stated that a key issue here is inflated self-assessment of intellectual capabilities by the school students that leads them to mistaken choice of both university and profession. Making of network-programs in professional orientation is analyzed within the system ’schools-university-labor market’ in Urals federal district.

y words: professional orientation • professional choice • cultural moral values • students • potential migrants • social loafers

SELIVERSTOVA N.. (Moscow University for humanities, Moscow, Russia) Sociological education: provision with textbooks and their quality p. 128

Summary. Dynamics of publishing teaching and teaching methodology literature are analyzed in the realm of sociology for higher education stressing the fact of diminishing numbers of copies printed due to expansion of electronic publications(while numbers of titles remain stable). Teaching literature quality criteria are suggested for sociological teaching literature. They are: accordance of title and contents, presence of social practice analysis of Russian and international realities, argumentation and facility of material presentation, elaborated aspects related to methods and practical application, competent edition of the text. Cases of contents and quality of teaching aides in sociology of education are discussed.

ey words: higher school • sociological education • textbooks • bachelor’s degree • master’s degree • learning literature quality criteria

GILMANOV A.Z., OVALENKO S.. (both authors – Academy of sciences, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan’, Russia) Role of university in work placement of graduate students – experiences of Bonn University p. 134

Summary. Experiences of Bonn University in work placement of graduates are reviewed including basic forms and methods of work with the students.

y words: work placement • students • high school graduates • employment agencies • labor market • post-graduate education

SOCIOLOGICAL JOURNALISM

SCHULZ V.L., LIUBIMOVA .. (both authors – Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia) “Wooden language” as a mirror of revolution p. 136

Summary. Phenomenon of dogmatized and stereotypic speech is discussed metaphorically referred to as “wooden language”. Its national modifications, characteristics (stereotypes, secondary & quasi-scientific nature, wide use of euphemisms, demagoguery) are specified. A dictionary of the language is offered, and its potential manipulative capabilities are mentioned. Brief review of 20th century linguistic and philosophical theories (Sapir, Whorf, Foucault, Chomsky, Losev, Pierce, Bart, Eco) permits authors to accentuate societal status of language as an active source creating and anticipating realities. A hypothesis is formulated related to relationship between discourse practices built upon stereotypes of “wooden language” in a given society up to protest or revolutionary events.

y words: wooden language • politically correct language • euphemism • stereotype • ABC of propaganda • language demagoguery • discourse practices • deconstructivism

ACADEMIC EVENTS

BILAN Yu. (Szczecin University, Szczecin, Poland) Specifics of EUMAGINE transnational migration project p. 146

BIYZHANOVA E.., ROGOVAYA .V. (both authors – Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia) Second international political science forum II “Russian Caucasus” p. 147

BOOK REVIEWS

Tikhonova N.E. Social structure of Russia: theory and reality, Moscow, 2014 reviewed by LATOV Yu.V. (G.V. Plekhanov economic University, Moscow, Russia). p. 149

Auzan A. Economics of everything. How institutes determine our life. ., 2014 reviewed by B.V. RNEITCHUK (National research University ‘Higher school of Economics’, St.-Petersburg, Russia) p. 155

Sociological Studies: 2014 best papers (inside back cover)

CONTENTS. SUMMARIES