Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

MONTHLY

2015 No 4 (372)

ONTENTS. SUMMARIES

THEORY. METHODOLOGY

ŠUBRT I. (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)

Concept of social time in sociology – promising approach or a theoretical impassė? p. 3

Summary. P.A. Sorokin and R.K. Merton in 1937 article state that a majority of social scientists would agree to feasibility of using astronomic concept of uniformly flowing quantitative time. They attempted to introduce social time concept as a methodological tool permitting to deeper understand social periodicity. G. Gurvich and other sociologists promoted entrenching this concept in sociology. The paper discusses some issues linked to practical uses of this notions.

y wrds: sociology • social time • qualitative time • quantitative time • temporality • movement

SELIVANOV A.I. (Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia) p. 11

Cognition of the future of social development objects

Summary. A methodological platform of knowledge of the future of social objects is proposed based on the concept of development interest and including separation ontological future into several types, the distinction between basic and applied futurology, the allocation of empirical, theoretical and analytical levels of knowledge of the future.

Key words: developing social object • methodology • knowledge of the future • fundamental futurology • applied futurology

DEMOGRAPHY. MIGRATION

RYBAKOVSKIY L.L. (Institute of social political studies, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Depopulation and its ethnical aspects in Russia p. 18

Summary. The article describes consequences of the ongoing depopulation in Russia resulting eventually not only in diminishing number and proportion of the Russian population globally and regarding its settlement upon Russia’s territory, but also in significant shifts in ethnic structure of entire Russia and in its territorial units.

y words: depopulation • ethnos • titular peoples • repressions • migration • self-identification

CHOI WOO IK (Hankuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

Social economic changes in lif of Russian Koreans under conditions of market economy p. 29

Summary. The paper looks into changes and their specifics in the life of Russian Koreans under impact of market economy. These people were mainly engaged in the time of USSR in agriculture; but now they are actively masterring commerce, retail and private businesses. Due to higher educational levels ever more ethnic Koreans are occupied in intellectual spheres. One might even say that Koreans start to play a noticeable role in contemporary Russian society.

y words: Russian Koreans • ethnic minorities • re-settlers • nation • market economy

PITUKHINA .., SIGOVA S.V. (Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk, Russia)

Keys to success: lessons of migration policy in Finland p. 35

Summary. The article deals with the Finnish migration policy strong points revealed for the last 20 years. It is scrutinized how Finnish migration policy accepts technological, economic, and social challenges. The research is built on the papers of the Institute of Migration in Turku and Finnish national statistics. The principal role in flexible response is assigned to both monitoring and projection. Finnish practice turns out to be highly important for successful steering of the Russian migration policy.

Key words: migration policy • Finland • Occupational Barometers • Institute of Migration in Turku • labor migration

ETHNOSOCIOLOGY

POPKOV Yu.V.. (Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian branch, Russian academy of sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia)

National politics in Russia: targets and regional models p. 39

Summary. Targets and contradictions of ‘State national policies of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025’ are analyzed demonstrating the need to formulate regional models of national policies that would take into consideration specifics of locally evolving ethnic social processes. Taking as an example the ‘Concept of national policies realization in the city of Novosibirsk’ legal issues are discussed that emerge while working out regional conceptions of national policies.

Key words: Strategy of state national policies • ethnic social processes • ethnic cultural diversity • regional models of national policies • local governance bodies • Russia

FARUKSHIN M.Kh. (Kazan (Volga) federal University, Kazan, Russia)

Ethnocracy: international discourse p. 44

Summary. The paper demonstrates state of discussion related to issues of ethnocracy in Russian and international academic publications. Critically reviewed are various approaches to the notion of ethnocracy. A definition is suggested reflecting the essence of the phenomenon under review – domination of titular ethnic nation and subaltern humiliated of the opposing ethnic minority (-ties). Developments in Israel, Latvia, and Estonia demonstrate characteristic traits and specifics of contemporary ethnocratic regimes.

y words: ethnocracy • ethnic minorities • ethnocratic regime • ethnic democracy • ethnic confrontation • ethnocratic consciousness • Israel • Lativia • Estonia

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

LIMOVA S.G., KLIMOV T.A. (both – Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Interactions of urban dwellers with powers: competent participation and problem of intermediaries p. 51

Summary. The article – based on empirical sociological research – shows that the issue of effective interaction between organized and unorganized activists with local authorities – is, first and foremost, their ability to form own social subjectivity, to respond to the expectations and demands of the community. Identified are components of competent participation that contribute to successful dialogue of community members with the authorities. Role and functions of intermediaries – mediators between social activists and authorities are analyzed. Conclusion is made that authorities’ desire to strictly control scope of civil initiatives leads to alienation, apathy, and spontaneous outbursts of discontent.

Key words: civic engagement • authorities • officials • activists • alienation • competent participation • the mediators

DAVYBORETS E.N. (Far-Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia)

President’s direct line to the people’ as a social political technology p. 57

Summary. ”Direct lines to Vladimir Putin” are reviewed as a social political technology practiced in contemporary Russia. An umber of its positive functions is revealed: political socialization of citizens, making of a tradition of government-society relationship, mutual informing of both government and population, rising trust to president and maintenance of his positive image. Analyzed are also negative aspects of this technology, namely, manipulative techniques and ideologization of mass consciousness. Such technologies are in author’s opinion contributing to democratization of political system

Key words: social political technologies • president’s image • credibility of the President • ‘government-society relationships • political socialization • manipulations • ideologization of mass consciousness

SOLODNIKOV V.V. (Russian state University for humanities, Moscow, Russia)

Potentialities of social protests and authorities in contemporary Russia p. 63

Summary. In the article attempt was made to estimate dynamics of potential protest of Russians to attract attention to socio-demographic and psychographic parameters of potential (non)participants in protest actions of people aged 16 years and older. For this purpose, data of regular representative (cities with population 100 000 and more) all-Russian surveys (Russian Index of Targeted Groups) in second half of 2012 were used.

Key words: social protest • potential of social protest • protest activity • sociological research

ROFIMOVA I.N. (Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Civic activism in Russian society: features of localization p. 72

Summary. Basing on results of a representative sociological survey, specifics of civic engagement localization in contemporary Russian society are analyzed. It is shown that civic activity as a general characteristic of society is unequally distributed among social strata and groups whose members have different opinions about the problems facing them, and of the effectiveness of participating in their solution. The question is not just of involvement levels in sociopolitical activity, but also of specific forms, methods and areas of civic participation in particular social environment. Practices involving possibility of informal expression, of self-realization, and initiatives are localized largely among young, educated, urban, and mobile groups of populations. Institutional, conventional forms of civic participation are localized among older generations and hinterland residents. A conclusion is made related to civil participation of all social groups as an important area of life and condition for societal development.

Key words: civic activism • civic participation • civil practice • Russian society • social groups • social space • localization • features

SOCIOLOGY OF LAW. DEVIANT BEHAVIOR

SIEGMUNT O. (Institute of Criminal Sciences, University of Hamburg, Germany, research assistant (part-time), State Office of Criminal Investigation of Lower Saxony, Germany; WETZELS P. (Institute of Criminal Sciences, University of Hamburg, Germany).

Institutional anomie theory: an empirical test p. 78

Summary. Institutional anomie theory (IAT) is a theoretical basis to explain differences in the crime rates and also differences in the crime structure in the situation of dominance of some social institutions like economy, policy or civil institutions like family, school or peers. Assumptions of IAT to be tested at macro, micro, and with a multi level model should not be based on statistics only, but also using self-reported data. The school students are most suitable for such studies because of their accessibility. To test IAT is possible in two ways. 1. With countries that have a similar institutional structure but different tempo of social change (e.g. East and West Germany). 2. With countries having similar rapid social change but different institutional structure (e.g. East Germany and Russia). In the article a concept of empirical testing of institutional anomie theory is presented.

Key words: institutional anomie theory • empirical research • youth crime • Russia • Germany

MASLOVSKAYA E.V. (Sociological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.-Petersburg, Russia)

Formation and current trends in development of sociology of law in te USA and Great Britain p. 87

Summary. The article surveys evolution of American and British sociology of law from the 1960s to the present day. Main theoretical approaches to studying legal institutions and leading research topics are singled out. Differences between sociology of law and juridical disciplines are emphasized, and main peculiarities of institutionalization of sociology of law in the USA and Great Britain are discussed. The rise of structural functionalism was arguably crucial for the development of American sociology of law. T. Parsons’ ideas were elaborated by his followers influencing researchers not belonging to functionalist school. Unlike functionalism conflict theory did not lead to emergence of a particular approach in sociology of law though conflict perspective was important for this research sphere in the 1960s. A considerable influence on sociological studies of law in the USA was exerted by microsociological approaches particularly ethnomethodology. A specifically American perspective on law is represented by D. Black’s “pure sociology of law” that can be considered a middle-range sociological theory. Importance of J. Alexander’s ideas for sociology of law is discussed also. Alexander’s analysis of the civil sphere and its interaction with legal institutions might be relevant for sociological studies of legal systems. In comparison to the USA, British sociology of law did not have own theorists. At the same time there was competition of British sociology of law with purely empirical “socio-legal studies” and theoretical approach of “critical jurisprudence”. In Britain the influence of American sociology and “continental” theories affected sociological studies of law. However, original approaches have been elaborated by British researchers such as “sociology of constitutions”.

Key words: sociology of law • functionalism • cultural sociology • microsociology • socio-legal studies

LIUTINA .E., TEMAEV T.V. (both – Saratov State University, Saratov, Russia)

Behavioral specifics of aged convicts p. 95

Summary. Basing on the application of qualitative methodology, content characteristics of behavioral specifics of aged convicts is suggested related to persons whose criminal record features repeated criminal acts and dates of stay in corrective institution. Contrary of traditional ideas, a necessity is argued for of a ‘life-long contract’ for aged convicts to comply with requirements of quality of life and stable public care.

y words: convicts • corrective institutions • prison subculture • special hostel

OTEL’NIKOVA Z.V. (National research University ‘Higher school of economics’, Moscow, Russia)

Relationship of alcohol consumption with social structure of contemporary Russia p. 105

Summary. The article is devoted to consumption of alcohol in contemporary Russia. It is aimed at revealing a range of social practices of alcohol consumption; at testing how those practices are connected to social classes existing in Russia, and moreover, discovering social layers which demonstrate new styles of alcohol drinking. Social practices are classified according to types of alcoholic beverages consumed during the last 30 days, frequency of drinking, places of alcohol consumption, and association between alcohol drinking and mealtime. The research is built on the 21st wave of Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE), an annual nationwide panel survey designed to monitor health and economic welfare of households and individuals in Russia. All calculations were done on a sample of 8,778 alcohol drinkers aged 15 and older. Methods used to analyze data embrace correspondence analysis, factor analysis, and k-means cluster analysis. Six practices of alcohol consumption are ascertained. Research findings demonstrate significant relation of social structure and alcohol consumption. Higher classes mostly represent consumers of light and expensive alcohol. Middle classes tend to consume homemade alcohol. Lower classes stick to vodka, traditional and cheap alcohol. Additionally, individuals who tend to excessive drinking are concentrated in lower-low class.

y words: alcohol • consumption • practices • life style • social structure • ntemporary Russia • RLMS-HSE

SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH AND MEDICINE

TCHIRIKOVA A.E. (Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Ethics of physicians’ mutual interaction: an analysis of informal practices p. 113

Summary. The paper attempts to describe existing informal practices of relationships’ building between physicians. The study is based on empirical analysis using the technique of in-depth interviews with physicians and heads of medical institutions (57 interviews) in Moscow and elsewhere (Vologda and Kaluga regions). Special attention is given to answering the question: do physicians as professional group feel themselves as autonomous community of professionals or are they collectivist in their work? Do professionals agree/disagree to interact with less experienced physicians and why?

Key words: ethics of physicians’ relations • informal norms and rules • conflict • autonomy • integration • medical guild • collective coercion

RMOLAEVA P.., NOSKOVA E.P. (both – Academy of sciences, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, Russia)

Main trends in the sphere of Russians’ healthy lifestyle p. 120

Summary. Healthy lifestyle is examined through the optics of W.C. Cockerham theory. Basing on this model and an All-Russian survey (n = 4000) relationship between healthy lifestyle (HLS) and such parameters as age, gender, education level, material position are studied. Results demonstrate that compliance with basic HLS practices is characteristic for women, specialists with higher education, and high income groups.

y words: Healthy lifestyle • HLS • gender

SOCIOLOGY OF MASS COMMUNICATIONS

STOP-RUTKOVSKA . (Bialystok University, Bialystok, Poland)

Cyber-memory, or: what we do (not) remember in the net. An analysis of local memory: Bialystok and Lublin p. 130

Summary. The paper aims at analyzing Internet mechanisms impact on shaping processes of ‘places of memory’ and ‘communities of memory’ among Lublin and Bialystok inhabitants. Compared are memories presented as official urban portals with unofficial memories reflected in social networks and Wiki-articles. Mechanisms of memory constructing are discussed regarding group memories that reflect presentation in official and unofficial internet-sources of Jewish communities’ position in Poland and relationships between Polish and Jewish population in both cities.

y words: Historical memory • collective memory • local memory • virtual memorial places • Wikipedia

REUTOV .V. (Belgorod state national research University, Belgorod, Russia), TRISHINA T.V. (Institute of regional personnel policies, Belgorod, Russia)

People’s Internet-practices and information preferences p. 140

Summary. Intrenet tends to gradually displace traditional media in the structure of media-preferences of Russia’s population, especially in age groups up to 40. Basic Internet function is communicative one, a fact confirmed by the results of our study. Social networks and blogs are the most demanded sort of net-resources. Main barriers in the way of further Internet expansion into life space of citizens have already not infrastructural, but a competence-bound and social cultural character.

y words: media preferences • information channels • news from Internet

SHAPOVALOVA I.S. (Belgorod state national research University, Belgorod, Russia)

Internet-communications impact of behavior and intellectual development of young people p. 148

Summary. A survey in Belgorod region has shown growing internet-dependence of young people as well as their realization of negative effect from information contents for social feeling and psychic health. Risks of notcontrolled virtual networks development are ascertained, and attention is drawn to the fact of this problem and attempts at its resolution.

y words: information communication technologies • antropo-cultural risks • intellectual marginalization • social forecasting • youth • virtual networks

SOCIOLOGY OF SCIENCE

ALINETSKIY G.G. (M.V. Keldysh Institute of applied mathematics, Academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Interdisciplinary ideas in sociology and challenges of future p. 152

Summary. Mutual relationships of contemporary sociology with interdisciplinary approaches are discussed including changes awaiting humankind in geopolitics, geo-economics and geo-culture in the first half of the 21st century. It is argued that it is sociology that shall – in medium-term perspective – achieve advanced positions in the complex of sciences of nature, society, and mankind.

y words: sociology • technological order • place of Russia in the world • self-organization theory • strategic forecast • global demographic transition • decline of American empire

GEIDAROV P.Sh. (Institute of cybernetics, National academy of sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan)

The scoring system evaluation of academic works and electronic academic seminar p. 162

Summary. Construction of a unitary expert system of evaluating academic works unsing modern technologies is discussed. It might be based on citation indices and impact factors. In addition to existing general attestation of scholars, a unitary electronic academic seminar is suggested to review theses defense results and other academic production.

y words: reforms in science • impact factor • citation index • cademic seminar • corruption in academia • electronic science

JUBILEE

KUKUSHKINA E.I.
ASTACHOVA V.I.

BOOK REVIEW

Efendiev A.G., Balabanova E.C., Rebrov A.V. Tchelovetcheskiye resursy rossiiskikh organizatsiy: problemy formirovaniya i upravleniya. M.: 2013 (Human resources of Rusiia’s business organization: issues of shaming and governing) reviewed by A.V. Tikhonov; Kravchenko S.A. Sotsiologiya. Uchebnik v 2-kh tomakh. M., 2014 (Sociology. A textbook. In two vols.) reviewed by A.V. Dmitriev.