Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

MONTHLY

2015 No 5 (373)

ONTENTS. SUMMARIES

70th ANNIVERSARY OF V-DAY

AZYASSKIY N.F. (Scientific Research Institute (military history) of Russian Federation Armed Forces Military Academy, Moscow, Russia)

Social origins of partisan movement in the years of the Great Patriotic war p.3

Summary. Social origins, scale and results of partisan movement on the USSR territory are analyzed. Its national character to defend the Fatherland led to describing this war as the Great Patriotic. The paper discusses basic parameters of partisan formations fighting at the occupied territories of the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine and Baltic republics. Archives of the Central staff of partisan movement permitted to present social characteristics of partisan forces, to demonstrate socio-political and organization factors of the mass partisan movement making, motivations of soviet citizens’ participation in it.

Key words: Great Patriotic war • partisan movement • underground activities • Resistance movement • partisan formations social composition

IVANOV V.N. (Russian Academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Veterans on the Great Patriotic war p. 12

Summary. Present-day situation in Russia after cardinal social and political transformations is characterized by weakening historical cultural continuity, by distortions of facts related to Russia’s history, by underestimation of Soviet state and society achievements and belittling the role of people and Red Army in the defeat of fascist German forces during the WWII. Hence an all-important role of the opinions of Great Patriotic war veterans, possessing the chance to juxtapose past and present, to assess truthfulness of Great Patriotic war events depicting, sources and results of the victory, role of individuals, of Russia’s nations, of other states.

Key words: Second World War • Great Patriotic war • veterans

BRITVINA I.B. (Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg, Russia)

Problems of maintaining and updating of the Great Patriotic War memory p. 18

Summary. On the basis of residents’ survey results in the Urals region the author shows that the main sources of information transfer about the Second World War are still family and high school. However, importance of these social institutions in maintaining and updating historical memory is decreasing because of several reasons. Results of the survey among urban residents in the Middle Urals show that from the point of view of preserving the memory of the war 15–17 year olds were more vulnerable than is those born in late 1990th. This suggests that decay of traditional mechanisms to preserve memory of the Great Patriotic War took place gradually, paralleling transformations of mass and interpersonal communication mechanisms. Increasing negative effect emerged only in our days, and only partially, for greatness and significance of these events are imperishable.

Key words: historical memory • The Great Patriotic War • mechanisms of historical memory • transformation of communication means • survey • interviews • the Ural

THEORY. METHODOLOGY

FILC D., RAM U. (both – Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel)

Marxism after postmodernism: Rethinking the emancipatory political subject p. 22

Summary. The concept of a historical-social and political emancipatory subject, central in Marxism, has been rebuked by postmodern theories. Authors examine the encounter between Marxist and postmodernist theories pondering how to conceive of an emancipatory political subject. The article outlines a typology of the different responses of Marxist thinkers to the postmodernist challenge. The authors distinguish between ‘total rejection’ (anti-postmodern Marxism) and ‘total acceptance’ (post- Marxism), and between ‘rejection in part’ (Marxist postmodernism) and ‘acceptance in part’ (synthetic Marxist postmodernism). Based on this typology, the authors discuss the different approaches to the question of the emancipatory subject.

Key words: Marxism • post-Marxists • postmodernism • class • subject

CHUDOVA I.. (Novosibirsk National state research University, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Postmodernism and sociological theory p. 33

Summary. The paper shows the place of postmodernism in sociological theory as a specific discourse of social sciences. Postmodernist dictionary and peculiarity of theoretical generalizations are demonstrated. The nature of this approach is discussed juxtaposing texts associated to modernism vs. those of postmodernists. In case of modernism, conceptual row of order, rationality, institute, actions, as well as specific generalizations based on the idea of controls and determinism are deployed, while in the second one notions of consumption, practices, discourse, identity and metaphorically ironical removal of causality in generalizations are normally used.

Key words: discourse • discursive reading/vision • postmodernism • modernity • dictionary • style of generalizing

ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY

VARSHAVSKAYA E.Ya., DENISENKO M.B. (both – National research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia)

Numbers, trends and characteristics of Russia’s economically inactive people p. 42

Summary. Traditionally, research interest focuses on those employed and unemployed in the labor market while relatively little attention is paid to people classified as economically inactive. However, changes in inactivity rates are a key of labor supply due to large number of potential workers among this group. The article identifies trends in economic inactivity in Russia, characteristics of inactive people, and reasons for inactivity comparing inactivity rates in Russia and OECD countries. The text is based on the Russian Labor Force Survey data for 2013. Sickness and family responsibilities are the main difference in economic inactivity rates between men and women. Sickness and disability is a major reason for economic inactivity among men in working age while majority of women of the same age are inactive as a result of family/home responsibilities. Inactivity rates vary considerably by level of educational attainment. Employment potential of the Russian economically inactive people is low. Its increase suggests institutional and economic reformations aimed at increasing the employment rates of older workers and youth.

Key words: economic inactivity • economically inactive people • labor supply • Russian labor market

VOLOVSKAYA N.M., PLIUSNINA L.K., RUSINA A.V., INOZEMTSEVA A.V. (all- Novosibirsk state University of economics and management, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Unemployed population and self-employment in sibirian region p. 52

Abstract. The article is based on comparative data obtained from three sociological surveys of social labor expectations about self-employment among unemployed in Novosibirsk region. In the surveys, uniform methodology and representative sampling were ascertained. Terms of self-employment, backgrounds, conditions and favorable fields for the development of self-employment are discussed. Analyzed are socio-demographic features of unemployed population, its sensibilities and activity, dispositions to dependency, awareness of people opting for business of their own. Interests of the people regarding self-employment, strategies in employment, motives of self-employment and respective trends, readiness to self-employment and reasons that enabled transition to it were also studied. In conclusion, necessity to give to the issue of developing self-employment the status of national problem.

Key words: self-employment • unemployed population • unemployment • social sensibilities • dependency • motives

SOCIAL POLITICS. SOCIAL STRUCTURE

AMBAROVA P.A., ZBOROVSKIY G.. (both – Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin)

Societal communities’ temporal behavior strategies as a sociological problem p. 61

Summary. The paper discusses – on the basis of community, activity and temporary approaches – temporal strategies of behavior of various social communities with the purpose to analyze features and contradictions in formation and realization of different types of the above strategies. Temporal strategies of behavior are shown as a marker of community. Authors argue that in modern conditions most constructive are the strategies focused on nonlinear time. They are a characteristic sign of vanguard social communities. It is shown that distinctions in temporal strategies of behavior are a source of social contradictions and the conflicts inside and outside communities.

Key words: temporal behavior strategies • linear and non-linear social time • traditional and vanguard social communities

OLPINA L.V. (Belgorod state University, Belgorod, Russia)

Gerontology ageism in practices of medical and social care (according to focus-groups research data) p. 72

Summary. The article analyzes gerontology ageism features in medical and social care workers professional activity on the basis of data obtained in four focus group investigations. Institutional, 174 personal, socio-cultural and competence-based components of a gerontology ageism were substantiated. Key words: gerontology ageism • elderly people • social and medical employees • focus group 78 LIAN LIAN (Institute of social governance, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, Peoples’ Republic of China) Social inequalities, reforms and open society in China Summary. Several lines in research of social differentiation in China are reflected in the writing of Chinese scholars. To study this issue, “ disruption theory”, “middle class in the making theory”, “reproduction theory”, ”fragmentation in the course of structuring”, “T-like society” etc. are used. The role of market mechanisms and China government policy is actively studied to work out countermeasures for overcoming social inequality.

Key words: social stratification • differentiation • inequality • the poor • the rich • China

GENDER SOCIOLOGY

TARTAKOVSKAYA I.N. (Institute of sociology, Russian Academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

The gender order reproduction via career strategies: Intersectional analyses p. 84

Summary. Labor strategies and values of men and women from different classes and generations are studied using intersectional analysis methodology to demonstrate certain dimensions of the social hierarchies affecting the Russian gender order reproduction and change. Pattern of ‘working mother’ retains its normative character for all categories of young women, even if material resources of their families allow them to practice only maternal function. Young men are forced to be agents for change because methods of Soviet-time masculinity assertion have now lost their significance. However, the class differences among young men become quite outspoken.

Key words: gender • intersectional analysis • gender order • labor strategies • motivations • social inequality •generation • social mobility

KARACHURINA L. (National research university Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia)

Women migrants in the niche of household labor in Russia p. 93

Summary. Using the data of the purposive sampling (2008–2010 and 2013) undertaken by The Migration Research Center the author attempted to create a “portrait” (set of social, demographic and economic traits) of the female labor migrants from the CIS countries working as the domestic hired employees in Russia. The analysis showed that the domestic hired female labor migrants stand in a better position compared to other groups of the foreign migrants because they are provided with the place to live and higher wages or salaries. On the other hand, they stay under more difficult conditions characterized by informal labor position and domestic labor practices. Examining this population group we face a number of research topics: labor migration, female migration, individual migration, employment in the sphere of the services provision at home, especially its emotional and communicative aspects, informal employment.

Key words: labor migration • female migration • domestic workers • domestic work • care economy

BAZUEVA E.V. (Perm state university, Perm, Russia)

International experience of developing systems of egalitarian type gender power institutions p. 102

Summary. Gender power institutions in modern Russian have a very poor quality and do not meet requirements of modern economy reducing efficiency of society and economy. Acting within the behavior standards (institutional roles) of these institutions leads to high costs for economic agents. Low economic efficiency of human capital is typical for women due to gender discrimination both in social and reproductive sectors of the national economy and as a result of short life period and a great number of deaths in productive ages. It is pointed out that such gender imbalance lessens the efficiency of economy subjects and economy in general. All this asks for modernization of the existing gender power institutions. The article analyses quality of the most efficient national institutions in leveling out gender imbalance: Australian, and Swedish ones. Advantages and disadvantages of functioning institutions were identified. It is argued that the use of the experiences would allow the modernization of existing gender power institutions in Russia in the most optimal way for development.

Key words: quality of institutions • institutions of gender power • selection • effectiveness • hierarchy

UBAIDULLAEVA R.A., RAKHIMOVA N.H. (both – Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan)

Conditions and factors for improving the social status of women in Uzbekistan in the years of independence (Results of a sociological study) p. 110

Summary. The article is based on the results of a sociological study “Women of Uzbekistan – 2013: social status and social well-being”, which is an extension of opinion polls conducted by the Centre “Ijtimoiy Fikr” to monitor social well-being of women in Uzbekistan’s in independence years.

Key words: women • men • family • activity • role • status • employment • well-being

SOCIOLOGY OF YOUTH

ZUBOK Yu.A., CHUPROV V.I. (both Institute of social and political studies, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Young specialists, training and demand in the labor market p. 114

Summary. A criterion of effective training and employment of high-skills labor is arguably seen in consistency of the work they are employed in with the training they obtained in respective higher school. In recent decades, however, number of university’s graduates working in their specialty is on the decrease. Every third person today works in specialty not connected to professional training. These trends reflect not high effectiveness of personnel training in higher school and impact of labor market situation as well. Results of a sociological study allowed to analyze impact on the young employees of certain factors linked to their training, and to collisions on the labor market too. A conclusion is argued for that training of a young specialist involves not only professional but also individual qualities. Factors influencing choice by a young specialist of employment in the specialty obtained, and motives to reject employment in university profile as a form of rationalizing labor relations are scrutinized.

Key words: young specialists • labor market • employment in specialty

GOURKINA .. (Moscow city psychology pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia), MAL’TSEVA D.V. (CIRCON research group, Russian state University for humanities, Moscow, Russia)

Adolescents’ motivations to use virtual social networking sites p. 123

Summary: The article investigates reasons for the popularity of social networking sites (SNS) among adolescents. International experiences of theoretical understanding and empirical research of motives of SNS usages are reviewed. The paper presents results of a sociological survey among Moscow pupils, conducted by the Laboratory of monitoring studies in 2013. According to findings leading motives of social networks usage are communicative and cognitive ones. It is also shown that recreational opportunities of SNS have a great importance for teenagers, as they form a sense of freedom.

Key words: social networking sites • motives of social networking sites usage • adolescents • theory of social compensation • the rich get richer hypothesis • social presence theory

TSYLEV V.R., SHAROVA .N. (both – Murmansk state University for Humanities, Murmansk, Russia)

Satisfaction with socialization situation and with self-realization among the youth of Murmansk oblast p. 130

Summary. The paper is addressing satisfaction with socialization situation among the youth of this Northern territory studied by electronic questionnaire. Satisfaction has been measured in seven basic social spheres: education, employment, culture and arts, physical culture and sports, health care, housing and communal, recreation and leisure.

Key words: youth • socio-economic development • region • satisfaction • socialization • self-realization • Murmansk oblast

OSIPOVA .V., MAKLASHOVA E.G. (both – Institute of humanitarian studies and issues of small peoples of the North, Yakutsk, Russia)

Ethnic identities of Arctic youth p. 139

Summary. The article is devoted to the issues of the ethnic identification of the Arctic youth. The results of the study “Arctic Youth: identities, strategy of life” carried out in 2013–2014 are analyzed. The survey was conducted in four municipal districts of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) located along the Arctic coast. The object of the study was young people aged 14 to 30 years. They are of different ethnicity: Evens, Evenks, Dolgans, Yukagir, Chukchi, – united by one name – Indigenous Peoples of the North, as well as Russians, Yakuts (Sakha) and those who indicated belonging to other ethnicities/ mixed ethnicity. We wanted to find out the presence of a relationship between importances of various group identities with varying status in the official classification of ethnic groups. Particular attention was paid to the problem of territorial identities of “indigenous” and “non-indigenous” peoples.

Key words: ethnic identity • territory • identification • youth • Arctic • Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) • medical workers • focus group

ANNIVERSARY

D.G. ROTMAN is 70! p. 145

ROTMAN D.G. (Belarus state University, Minsk, Belarus)

Modern sociological research: opportunities for improving data quality, new approaches to data collection and analysis of information p. 145

Summary. The article considers peculiarities in organizing and conducting sociological research under contemporary conditions, analyzes mistakes of sociologists that affect data quality, describes 176 some approaches to data collection and analysis of information (for instance, method of “sociological reconstruction of the past events”, peculiarities in studying opinions of hardly accessible respondents etc.), that were positively evaluated in practice of national and international research projects realized under author’s leadership or with his participation.

Key words: sociological research • mistakes in sociological research • method of “sociological reconstruction of the past events” • “surveys – recollections”, “method of text survey” • surveys of inaccessible respondents, “virtual focus groups”

SPECIAL OPINION

INOZEMTSEV V.L. (National research University Higher School of Economics; Center of Postindustrial society studies, Moscow, Russia)

Universe of Russia against Russian mir p. 150

Summary. The paper analyzes the concept of ‘Russian mir’ built on image of Russians as a largest ’divided nation’. Fallacy of ideas of a special role of Russia both in the post-Soviet territories and in the whole world is argued for. Success of intellectual Russian emigration in the West is stated and, at the same time, cooperation with Russian Diaspora in CIS countries is criticized in context of political and ideological interaction. It is suggested to intensify politics of openness versus Russian intellectual Diaspora combined with curbing support for “professional Russians’.

Key words: countrymen abroad • responsible politics • cooperation • emigrants’ professionalism • successfulness • professional Russians

DISCUSSION. POLEMICS

YANITSKIY .N. (Institute of sociology, Russian Academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Contemporary wars: a sociologist’s view p. 156

Summary. The paper reviews specifics of contemporary wars (CW). Importance of this problematic for academic studies, main characteristics of CW, taxonomic, activist and ‘constructionist’ structure of its participants and its dynamics and, finally, the question what sociology is necessary for studying specifics of CW, – these are main topics of the paper. Author concludes that analysis of contemporary wars as a basic feature of the society of general risks allows to widen sociological knowledge about condition of society and world.

Key words: war • army • crisis • civic solidarity • legitimacy • critical situations

LETTER TO THE EDITORS

GUREVITCH L.Ya. (Center of business-information, sociological and marketing studies “BISAM Central Asia” Moscow, Russia); ISKENDIROVA S.. (Corporate foundation “Center for social partnership”, Moscow, Russia)

How to make sociological studies really empirical? p. 165

Summary. The questions of introducing results of social studies into the strategy and practice of management in various domains and at different levels are considered. Based on the materials of a comprehensive research project implemented by Social Partnership Center under “Samruk-Kazyna” Fund and by Center of Business Information, Social and Marketing Research Center “BISAM Central Asia” the opportunities of the efficient application of sociological information for diagnostics of sociolabor relations, social moods and other purposes of management are demonstrated.

REFLECTING ON A NEW BOOK

VOLKOV Yu.G. The phantom present in the mirror of future (re: Zh.T. Toshchenko’s book “Phantoms of Russian society”, M., 2015) 83, p. 167

BRIEF OF BOOKS p. 144

CONTENTS. SUMMARIES p. 172