Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences



2015 No 6 (374)



TOSHCHENKO Zh.N. (‘Sociological Studies’ monthly, Institute of Sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Russian State University for humanities, Moscow, Russia)

Precariat – a new social class (3-13)

Summary. The paper offers explanations of reasons for emergence of a new social class – precariat. Its structure and main characteristics are given. Ripening of the ideas of precariat is shown within scientific thinking, in international and Russian social practice. Comparison is drawn with other social groupings. Specifics of the class are revealed including its place and role in contemporary labor partition, its position in the labor market, first sprouts of its consciousness as a ‘class for itself’; social impact of pecariat’s emergence and functioning are discussed.

Key words: society • classes • precariat • proletariat • labor market • employment

DUDINA V.I. (St.-Petersburg State University, St.-Petersburg, Russia)

Sociological knowledge in the context of information technologies development (13-22)

Summary. The paper looks into changes that affect theories, data and methods of sociological research under impact of developing information technologies. It refers, i.a., to end of questionnaire survey domination, concentration of attention from theories to methods of data processing, changing character of explanations, rethinking of sampling and representation, to more ‘democratic’ knowledge production.

Key words: methodology • scientific knowledge production • information technologies • digital sociology • performativeness.


OZERNIKOVA .G., KUZNETSOVA N.V. (both – Baikal State University of Economics and Law, Irkutsk, Russia)

Developing intra-corporate social responsibility in Russian companies (23-34)

Summary. Russian companies often tend to proclaim their commitment to principles of intra-corporate social responsibility, recognize their strategic potential and report social investments into personnel. The paper probes into suggestion that results of employers’ social activities do respectively affect wellbeing level of employees and their labor life qualities. Principles of intra-corporate responsibility of business are formulated and an assessment is given of their practical effectiveness as revealed in results of 2011–3013 sociological surveys in Irkutsk region. Dependency is found out of intra-corporate social responsibility from the size and economic situation of the company, as well as a differentiation of social services depending on professional and hierarchical status of employee involved. A conclusion is made that the basic stimulus for effecting socially responsible strategy towards personnel is hard competition in target markets and labor market.

Key words: intra-corporate social responsibility • employer • employee • labor power spending

OKARSKAYA N.., MARASANOVA A.A. (both – Baikal State University of Economics and Law, Irkutsk, Russia)

Quality of life of Irkutsk population (35-39)

Summary. Discussing Irkutsk population quality of life, assessments are presented related to basic spheres of peoples’ living activities, and impact of social demographic parameters on the quality of their life is analyzed. Governing activities of state power bodies in the city of Irkutsk and Irkutsk region are assessed, and life satisfaction of population, as well as their attitudes to its aspects is characterized.

Key words: quality of life • level of life • Siberian city

BAKHMATOVA .G., TCHUSOVA Yu.A. (both – Baikal State University of Economics and Law, Irkutsk, Russia)

Orphan’s social exclusion at regional labor market: the case of Irkutsk region (40-45)

Summary. Causes and specifics of orphan’s social exclusion in the sphere of employment are discussed at the basis of in-depth interviews with graduates of residential schools. Objective and subjective grounds are analyzed, indices (indicators) of orphan’s labor exclusion/inclusion are suggested. Methodology of determining level (type) of exclusion is offered based on a combination of exclusion/inclusion indicators.

Key words: orphans • social exclusion/inclusion • social successfulness/unsuccessfulness • labor market.

TROKHIROVA. U.V., ZIMINA E.V. (both – Baikal State University of Economics and Law, Irkutsk, Russia)

Professionalization of social works in the region: problems and prospects (the case of Irkutsk region) (45-52)

Summary. The paper is devoted to synthesis of experience and results of studying problems and prospects of professionalization of social work in regional conditions. The research was based on an institutional approach which allowed to reveal interrelations between objective and subjective aspects of social work professionalization. The author considers professionalization as a multi-level process including, on the one hand, formation of institutional foundations of social work as a professional activity and acquisition of signs of a profession and, on the other hand, professional development of social workers as subjects of professional activity. The results of the research are intended to demonstrate the problems and contradictions of formation of social work as a profession and specify the reasons of insufficient level of professionalism of social work specialists.

Key words: social institute • profession • professionalization • professionalism • social work.

KARPIKOVA I.S. (Baikal State University of Economics and Law, Irkutsk, Russia)

Quality and availability of medical services: population and health care experts’ opinions (53-57)

Summary. While issues of social sphere efficiency are given priority today, attention is also drawn to assessment of its key performance indicators. Sociological research results regarding aspects of health care activities are discussed. There is a wide range of issues related to population health and its level of satisfaction with health care institutions performance, the problem of quality and availability of medical services invokes great interest. Prior to that conclusion, a comparative analysis of the results of the population questionnaires and interviews with the representatives of the leadership and experts in the sphere of health care was conducted. Such analysis enabled to reveal similar and distinctive features in population and experts’ assessments of the public health state and health care institutions functioning problems.

Key words:  health • health care • quality of medical services • availability of medical services


A.V. KINTCHAROVA, .. SOKOLOV (both European University at St-Petersburg, Petersburg, Russia).

Research practices of Russian sociologists (58-68)

Summary. Changing methods of data collecting, processing and presenting as practiced by Russian sociologists are followed-up analyzing all papers printed in ‘Sociological Studies’, Moscow in 1981, 1996, and 2011. Preferred methods of data collection did not practically change – with limited use of qualitative methods being the only exclusion, while use of statistical methods remained at a low level. Limited progress in data description and presentation is partly explainable by journal’s editorial staff efforts.

Key words: data collection • data presentation • sociology of science • mathematical methods of analysis • N. Elias

NECHITAILO I.S. (Kharkov University for Humanities, Kharkov, Ukraine)

Opportunities and prospects for the use of certain situational tests in empirical sociology (68-77)

Summary. Possibilities of applying pictures grouping in empiric sociology are analyzed, in particular in research of cognitive resources and cognitive codes as “hidden mediators” of (re)production processes of social inequality and social structure. The article presents results of pilot project aimed at testing above research methods and techniques for validity. Basing on these results it is concluded that study of cognitive resources and codes by this method, allows to go beyond psychology and draw important sociological conclusions about development (perfections, adjustments) of curriculums that would promote smoothing of chances of people from different social layers, social classes, or groups on success in education, and consequently, to moving toward higher positions in social space.

Key words: cognitive resource • cognitive code • linguistic code • education • pedagogical labor • test of pictures grouping


SHCHERBINA V.V. (Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian State University for humanities, Moscow, Russia)

Population-selectivity model of organization development: essence, sphere and prospect for application (part I) (78-86)

Summary. The paper discusses emergence, making and contents of a theoretical model of organization development (OD) called in sociology of organizations a population-selectivity model. A explanatory scheme if offered: mechanisms of OD flow are described along with its forecasting capabilities and prospect for practical application. Emergence of the model is linked to crisis in systemic ideas of organization theory

Key words: organization development • structural changes • organization’s survival • environmentalism • organization population • resource niches • niche’s width • organization’s repertoire.

IL’INYKH S.., MIKHAILOVA E.V. (both – Novosibirsk state University for Economics and Management, Novosibirsk, Russia).

Innovations in organizations: introduction and resistance  (86-90)

Summary. Approaches to innovation introduction in organizations are analyzed using data of a Novosibirsk smallbusinesses’ survey. Innovation receptivity of personnel is analyzed from the point of view of resources and topmanagers capability to take decisions aimed at realizing initiatives, as well as social cultural specifics of organizations influencing character of innovative behavior. Three types of habitualization are singled out: innovation receptivity, resistance to innovations, and a mixed type.

Key words: innovation • innovation receptivity • resistance to innovations • habitualization • innovators • conservatives


SMOLIN .N. (Committee of State Duma on Education, Moscow, Russia).

Higher education: struggle for quality or an attempt at human potential? (Part 1) (91-101)

Summary. The paper analyses the state of higher education in contemporary Russia. Author draws attention to efforts of government to substitute the problem of rasing quality of education by the issue of lowering numbers of students, a step with less minuses than pluses. Desire to limit citizens’ access to education might be seen as an attempt at their well-being, quantity and quality of life, thus leading to growing social tension. Indices of Universities effectiveness monitoring do not match with the declared aim of raising quality of education and do not take into consideration branch, economic and other specifics of Universities. Among allegedly ineffective Universities there are some recognized leaders. Pyramid of higher education built on bureaucratic criteria stratifies Universities in Russia, while course at decreasing their numbers deprives citizens of their right at accessible education. Among all functions of the state administration only one did get hypertrophied development – that of control. Quantity of required documents keeps growing. While number of teachers decrease, numbers of administrators grows both in governing structures and in institutions of higher learning.

Key words: higher education • University • students • bureaucratization • quality of education • monitoring Universities’ effectiveness • increasing size of Universities • National research Universitites

GAVRILIUK .V. (Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, Tyumen, Russia)

Cultural potential of young teachers in the Russian province: theory and practice of research (102-110)

Summary. The paper discusses basic approaches to studying cultural potential of young professors of Urals Federal District Universities seen as a leading subject of cultural activities in the social space of the region. Empirically, the study was based on the data of a mass survey and focused group interviews. High level was ascertained of involvement of young teachers into cultural space of the city and their eagerness to more actively make their leisure time. However, there are found also lack of stable identity among the young intelligentsia, consumer-type attitude to cultural space, passivity and lacking self-organization. Young intellectuals in the city are not aware of being a group capable to effect cultural transformations.

Key words: intellectuals • young professors • cultural potential • cultural level

KORNEVA .Yu., PLOTNIKOVA I.V. (both – National Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk Russia).

Student academic mobility: social issues (111-115)

Summary. Contemporary knowledge and solution of sustainable development issues are unthinkable without international integration and cooperation. Situation with migratory processes is studied in Russian education. Geography of academic mobility is discussed regarding studies abroad and foreign students arrivals to Russia. Organization, legal, learning methodological and other problems of academic mobility practices are discussed along with partnership programs of Russian universities with their colleagues abroad in common effort to train students.

Key words: knowledge integration • universities • international partnership • academic mobility


KRESOVA N.. (Granada University, Granada, Spain, Marie Curie Cofund/Estonian Research Council, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia)

Negative “other” in Russian emigrants’ blogs: on the question of identity making in discourse (116-125)

Summary. The image of negative «other» plays an important role in enhancing positive self-representation of individuals and groups. Identity-enhancing strategies gain particular importance in case of social groups that are positioned “in-between”. The paper analyzes «out-group» as identified by Russian bloggers living abroad. Their negative other is represented by groups of emigrants who, in opinion of online Journal’s authors, break rules of correct behavior. Criticizing one of such groups – “My People” – they may enhance their social identity positioning themselves as trusted members of national and cultural majorities of both their adoptive country as well as that of their homeland.

Key words: negative other • threatened identities • small-discourses • migrants • blogging

REUTOV .V., REUTOVA M.N. (both – Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russia).

Distrust in peoples’ attitudes and practices (126-132)

Summary. In the article on the basis of empirical sociological data the extent and the factors of the «culture of distrust» spread in the regional society are investigated. The decrease of trust with increasing radius relations, presence of negative experiences of interaction with the state and municipal government are the main barriers to the formation of a culture of trust in society. Data obtained in the current project do not correspond to alarmist expectations regarding degradation of relatio in Russian societal community. The zone of mistrust culture does not by far embrace the whole of regional level relations. Nevertheless, as in any case of sociological data interpretation, difference between normative declared attitudes and descriptive assessments close to routine practices should be taken into consideration.

Key words: trust • distrust • «culture of distrust»


SURKOVA I.Yu. (Yu. A. Gagarin Saratov State Technical University, Saratov, Russia).

«Front» and «backstage» of military profession: social cultural analysis (133-139)

Summary. The paper analyzes professionalism in everyday culture of Russian servicemen. Using conception of dramaturgical sociology, ‘front’ and ‘backstage’ practices are looked into, as well as ‘stage decorations’ related to status

symbols of military profession. The adaptation of fresh recruits to the space-time borders of the army’s “total institution” occurs through the acceptance of legitimately established norms and rules of this military organization, and the non-normative forms are invested with traditions and rituals of festive and everyday life. The rigid formal frameworks of military service are the way to daily form the culture of military personnel. This normalization is, however, broken regularly, allowing the development of informal attributes in the military’s professionalism. In a traditional view army service is seen as an attribute of masculinity; it’s a necessary initiation for a boy’s transition to man status. Soldiers and cadets reproduce patterns of male society, assuming aggressive behavior, strict discipline, and domination of a masculine culture of «the real servicemen». The purpose of this article is a socio-cultural analysis of the professionalism’s attributes in daily culture of the current Russian military personnel. We use results of biographic interviews with the military personnel (N = 60–45 men, 15 women, 2010–2013), based on the life-events revealing main attributes of identification of army professionalism.

Key words: civil-military relations • army • military personnel • professionalism

ABRAMOV A.P. (Southwest State University, Kursk, Russia)

Effectiveness of specialized military education (140-144)

Summary. On the basis of sociological polls and interviews of cadets, graduates of military schools of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the Suvorov military schools, the Nakhimov military sea schools and experts in 2002–2013 theoretical construct of perspective model of secondary specialized military education is developed and its place a role in structure in cadet formation of modern Russia is empirically proved.

Key words: Sociological model • professional socialization • future officer • pupil • specialized military education.


SIMONIAN R.Kh. is 80! (145)

STRIZOE .L. Russian reforms of 1990th: sociological diagnostics, lessons, reflections. 2-nd ed. ., 2014. (on R.Kh. Simonian’s book “Sine ira et studio. 1990 th economic reforms and their effects for Russia”, , 2014) (146-149)

DANILOV A.N. is 60! (150)


VOLOKHOVA N.V. (South-Western State University, Kursk, Russia)

L.N. Tolstoy and sociology (reading sources on L.N. Tolstoy’s participation in 1882 Moscow census) (151-154)

Summary. The paper turns attention to history of information concerning population and demographic processes in Russia using the case of Moscow 1882 census and L. Tolstoy’s participation in it.

y words: sociology and literature • demography and sociology • Moscow 1882

NYSNBAEVA A.M. (Republic of Kazakhstan)

NGOs interactions with the state: Kazakhstan’s case (154-157)

Summary. The paper presents results of a survey among NGOs personnel in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Activities of pro-government, oppositional NGOs members are analyzed, as well as those of passive observers, in their quality of subjects of partnership with government bodies in realization of social contract.

Key words: non-governmental organizations • the state • civil society • social efficiency rating


RIMOV D.. (158)


BULANOVA .B., ROSLIAKOV .B. Sociology in social science: theory and practiced of school course (a ‘Round Table’ discussion) (159-160)

BIKKULOV .S., DMITRIEVA .V. Society for all ages (160-162)

SHAUKENOVA Z.., NYSANBAEV .N., NOVALOV S.. On results of a sociological forum in Astana (162-163)


(reviewed are books: Tarshis E.Ya. Content-analysis: principles of methodology (Building theoretical base. Ontology, analytics and phenomenology of text. Program of Research). ., 2014. Trotsuk I.V.; (164-168)

Morgan D. Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: a Pragmatic Approach. SAGE Publications, 2014. Polukhina .V.) (168-170)