Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

MONTHLY

2015 No 8 (376)

ONTENTS. SUMMARIES

17th A. KHARCHEV READINGS

TOLSTOVA Yu.N. (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia)

Sociology and computer technologies p.3

Summary. Information technologies permitted to create computer methods for sociological tasks. However, most of these methods are unknown to many sociologists. Moreover, there are no real attempts to master achievements of computer science. A main reason for this, so author, is the fact that sociologists do not know the methods in question. The paper offers a description of technologies, which are promising for sociology, and shows their usefulness in the context of debated issues of math methods use in sociology, methods that form foundation for any computer technology.

ey words: information technologies • data analysis • intellectual data analysis • big data • digital human sciences • data science • knowledge

RYTNIV N.V. (V.N. Karazin National University, Kharkov, Ukraine)

Online Big Data as a source of analytic information in online research p.14

Summary. Online Big Data (OBD) are seen in sociological research as quantitative information about web-sites visitors, their internet activities, individual preferences and interests. The paper summarizes capabilities of analytic platforms to collect, process and preserve (store) big data. A system is offered related to their indices used in sociological analyses. Considering that fact that construction of methodology for analyzing big data is in its initial stage, introduction is discussed of a conceptual methodological scheme for OBD analysis, as well as of meta-data monitoring for realizing technical principles of operation and regular introduction of necessary corrections, of automation of big textual massive and of standardizing web-measurements.

y words: Big Data • Online Big Data • counters • log analysts • blog analysts • OBD indices classifier • monitoring of meta-data • standardizing of web-measurements

ZHURAVLEVA .Yu. (.A. Sholokhov Moscow State University for Humanities, Moscow, Russia; Vologda branch of Russian academy of national economy and state service, Office of Russian Federation President, Vologda, Russia)

Sociology in digital environment: towards digital social research p. 25

Summary. The article describes models of research practices in the digital network environment that expand boundaries of sociological and social research: “computational social science”, “computational sociology”, “e-social science”, “digital sociology”, “digital social science”, “digital social research”. Particular attention is paid to re-location of this type of research from academic institutions to corporate research laboratories in order to ascertain relationship of the above models with digital social sciences on the level of methods and common projects.

Key words: computational social science • computational sociology • e-social science • digital sociology • digital social science • digital social research

ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY

IL’IN V.., SHABUNOVA .. (Institute of social economic research of territories’ development, Russian Academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Some tendencies in economic development of Russia and its regions p.34

Summary. Significance of non-economic factors for ensuring economic development is discussed on the basis of statistical and sociological data related to Russia in general and Vologda region. The conclusion is grounded that preparedness of the country and of its regions (the case of Vologda region) for modernizing way of economy development is at a low level.

y words: economic development factors • human potential • well-being • social inequality • social anomie • state administration

NISIMOV R.I. (Russian State University for humanities, Moscow, Russia)

Social and economic realities of Russians’ life-worlds under conditions of liberal reformations (a comparative analysis of 1990 and 2012 surveys data) p. 42

Summary. Life-worlds of Russians under conditions of market reforms in country’s economy are discussed stressing changing socio-economic indices of labor market as an objective basis of Russians’ social situation. A comparison of sociological survey data among Russia population in 1990 and 2012 permitted to conclude that population, as a whole, has adapted to market economy. However this adaptation occured in a deformed way, when official, legal relationships have very often been substituted by informal links leading thus to emergence of a shadow ‘networks society’. This fact permitted, on the one hand, to dampen and to level out consequences of liberal reforms, while, on the other, fostering rise of corruption, bribery, stealth and crime. It is these developments that “spit-up” life-worlds generating “cynicism culture”, feeling of injustice and mistrust.

y words: life-world • everyday routine • labor market • societal consciousness • networks society • informal links • corruption

OUR GUESTS – SOCIOLOGISTS FROM THE REPUBLIK OF BASKORTOSTAN

VALIAKHMETOV R.M. (Bashkir Branch of the Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of sciences, Ufa, Russia)

Human development issues in the Republic of Bashkortostan p.50

Summary. Human development research implies the use of complex interdisciplinary approach. Human development measuring and assessment should not be restricted to calculating and analyzing integral index and its components. Human development is first of all a social process mainly carried out by individuals and their activity (work, education, socio-cultural activities etc.). They ought to be supplemented and verified by sociological analysis of subjective estimates, ideas and views of population about quality and standards of its living, health, education and other values. The article discusses human development assessment in the Republic of Bashkortostan, which along with macroeconomic indicators of regional development embraces feelings, interests and needs of people as well as opportunities to realize their human potential.

Key words: social development • human development concept • human development index • life expectancy at birth • education • living standards

IRNAZAROV R.I. (Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Bashkortostan branch, Ufa, Russia)

Regarding the issue of ethnoi differentiation in Bashkortostan p. 56

Summary. The article deals with the specifics of social relations, of equality and inequality in the poly-ethnic environment of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The formation of similar ethnic relations is taking place under the influence of both ethnicity and social factors. Economic, social, political, spiritual-ideological, settlement conditions make direct influence on social divisions of individuals, affect viability of ethnoi, capacity to assert social and cultural identity, to preserve and develop ethnic cultures. This is particularly important in multi-ethnic environment, where clash of diverse cultures and formation of a qualitatively different poly-ethnic socio-cultural education take place.

Key words: poly-ethnicity • ethnoi • relations of equality and inequality between ethnicities • social factors • ethnic factors

KHILAZHEVA G.F. (Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Bashkortostan branch, Republic of Bashkortostan Institute of socio-political and legal research, Ufa, Russia)

Domestic violence as a social problem of contemporary society p. 61

Summary. The article discusses following questions related to domestic violence: 1) activities of United Nations for the prevention and eradication of domestic violence; 2) legislative regulation of this problem in Russia; 3) attitude of population in the Republic of Bashkortostan to the problem of domestic violence - basing on the results of sociological studies conducted by the Institute of social, political and law research of the Republic of Bashkortostan.

Key words: Republic of Bashkortostan • violence • domestic violence legislation • women • children

BURKHANOVA F.B. (Bashkortostan state University, Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Bashkortostan branch, Ufa, Russia)

Marriage and family among the Bashkirs p. 66

Summary. The article analyzes modernization processes in the family-marital sphere of the Bashkir population and discusses features of the dynamics of marital structure changes, common-law marriages, divorces, ethnic composition of families, motives for religious marriage ceremony, gender division of family duties and reproductive behavior on the basis of statistics and surveys.

Key words: family • marriage • common-law marriage • divorces • religious marriage ceremony • ethnically mixed marriages • the Bashkirs

ETHNOSOCIOLOGY

AREFIEV A.L. (Center for Sociological Research, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia)

On the languages of the Russia small-numbered indigenous peoples p. 75

Summary. The article describes the situation with use the languages of indigenous peoples in the North, Siberia and Far East in the Russian education system. There is a trend to reduce the number of owning their ethnic languages and studying it at school as a subject, as well as a decrease in the number of educational institutions where these languages are taught. The situation is catastrophic. Author proposes a system of urgent measures to support learning ethnic languages.

Key words: indigenous small peoples • ethnic languages • learning • subject • options • institutions

KIM HYE JIN (Institute of Russian Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Republic of Korea); SHABAEV Yu.P. (Ethnography Department, Institute of Language, Literature and History, Komi Science Center, Ural Branch, Russian academy of sciences, Syktyvkar, Russia); ISTOMIN K.V. (Ethnography Department, Institute of Language, Literature and History, Komi science Center, Ural Branch, Russian academy of sciences, Syktyvkar, Russia)

A local group in search for identity (Izhma-Komi: dynamics of cultural transformations) p. 85

Summary. The paper analyzes identification process and identity patterns among the Izhma-Komi, the Northern-most group of Komi people. This group has economic, cultural and linguistic traits that differentiate it from other groups of Komi people. Basing on the results of several surveys the authors have carried out targeting the Izhma Komi over the last decade, the paper reconstructs identification process in this period and contrasts it to the same processes of other local groups, for example, Pomors.

Key words: Izhma-Komi • ethnic group • local group • identity • identification

NYBN Z.V. (Institute of Oriental studies, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia), BLIN G.F. (Tuva Institute of integrated development, Siberian branch, Russian academy of sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Dynamics of interethnic relations and ethnic stereotypes in the Republic of Tuva p. 93

Summary. The paper analyses ntemporary interethnic situation in Tuva. Results of 2010 survey among the population of the Republic and an 2013 expert poll show a rather quiet interethnic climate in the region, while, at the same time, state presence of latent tensions in relations among two basic ethnoi – Tuvans and Russians. It was also found out that a set of socio-economic promblems affects negatively relationships of ethnoi inhabiting the republic, overall tolerance level and inter-ethnic stereotypes dynamics.

Key words: ethnic groups • Tuvans • Russians • interethnic relations • ethnic stereotypes • auto-stereotypes • heterostereotypes • Tuva

SOCIOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

SHCHERBINA V.V. (Insitute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia, Russian state University for Humanities, Moscow, Russia)

Population-selectivity model of organization development: essence, sphere and prospect for application (part 2) p. 100

Summary. In the first part of the article (“Sociological Studies”, 5, 2015) circumstances, origins and timing of this new organization development (OD) model were described. The model constructed in 1970–1980th and designated as “Population selectivity model oforganization development” (PSOD) questioned a number of canonical ideas on which system adaptivity models of OD were founded and offered a principally new scheme of organization structure changes. The scheme is described in this second partof the article along following parameters: a) basic ideas about the nature of organizations underlying the model; b) PSOD explanation scheme; c) mechanisms and logic ensuring process flow; d) modeling process of logic and guidelines of changes; f) cases ofconstructing social technologies (ST) on its basis; ) its prognostic capabilities. The PSOD scheme is based on the idea of OD as a two-phaseprocess of structure changes provoked by environment and expressed in widening their “social cultural repertoires” going on the level of the whole“organization population” in the logics of “natural selection” and selection of samples.

y words: structure changes • ecological niche • organization repertoire • structural inertia • ideal samples • real samples • sample selection

TULAEVA S.A. (St.-Petersburg state polytechnical University, St.-Petersburg, Russia)

Strategies of companies in the situation of regulatory pluralism p. 108

Summary. The paper is devoted to situation of regulatory pluralism and strategies of companies in this context. Regulation in the global world becomes more complex under influence of varying institutions and interest groups at different levels in different territories. State regulation gets under pressures from not only local rules, but also from global standards. Regulatory boundaries become more fluid and vague. As a result the objects of regulation are subjected to a variety of different rules simultaneously. Their activity is regulated by state law, local norms, global standards and conventions eventually conflicting each other. This situation is known as regulatory pluralism forcing objects of regulation to change their traditional strategies and roles. The study is mainly focused on companies’ reactions to the influence of various regulators. All too often they have to react to contradictory requirements. This study analyses how companies, while developing and implementing their strategies, form general understanding of regulatory institutions and legislations. These ideas are embodied into certain social practices thus constituting phenomenon of regulation. To understand how companies interpret, coordinate and implement demands of various regulators, I identified internal organizational features of the companies (motives, resources, strategies) and external factors (type of regulation, strategies of enforcement, level of involvement of the third party). The article is centered on the rules regarding the ecological and social aspects of industrial activity in Russian forest sector. This study is based on qualitative methods.

Key words: regulatory pluralism • social regulation • globalization

SOCIOLOGY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

ROTAEV .V., ISAEV L.. (both – National research Unversity Higher School of economics, Moscow, Russia), VASILIEV .. (Institute of Africa, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Quantitative analysis of 2013–2014 revolutionary wave p. 119

Summary. The world has met with a new rather weak (although special enough) revolutionary wave in 2013–2014. Splash of protests in Cairo, Kiev and Bangkok led to regimes’ fall (with direct involvement of the military in the first and third cases). Waves of protests in Tunisia, Caracas, Istanbul-Ankara and Saraevo seriously challenged respective regimes not toppling them. The paper discusses common traits of these destabilizing waves occurring though synchronously in Venezuela, Ukraine, Thailand.

y words: political regimes • center’s collapse • risks of socio-political destabilization • modernization processes • elections • apital city

YAKOVENKO .V. (V. Dal’ East-Ukrainian national University, Lugansk–Severodonetsk, Ukraine)

Issues of Ukraine’s foreign policy self-determination p. 128

Summary. Based on the results of several studies conducted by leading sociological centers, polarization in foreign policy preferences of Ukrainian citizens is illustrated. The paper accentuates responsibility of world powers for determining the strategies for Ukrainian society to exit out of the denoted crisis. Rigid adherence, in this regard, to hard paradigm of ‘civilization’ choice offered to Ukraine is charcterized as conservation of imperial paradigm in reception of processes in modern globalized society. Applied to Ukrainian society a necessity is argued for to find unconventional, consensual and not so much ‘civilization’ as ‘civilized’ solutions.

Key words: public opinion • foreign policy • civilized choice • imperial paradigm

HISTORY OF SOCIOLOGY

KUKUSHKINA .I. (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow state University, Moscow, Russia)

Sociology in its interrelations with political science in Russia: historical aspect p. 134

Summary. Development of sociology and political science is discussed from the point of view of common historical roots and specific (for each discipline) conditions of shaping their respective fields of study. Author follows-up acquisition by sociology and political science respectively of their status as independent spheres of theoretical knowledge. Conditions for emergence of sociology in Russia are argued for.

Key words: sociology • political science • politics • positivism • Marxism • sociological education • Moscow University

ALINOV .. (St.-Petersburg State University, St.-Petersburg, Russia)

“Sociology in the spirit of materialism” (Lectures of academy member A.S. Lappo-Danilevskiy) p. 142

Summary. Basing on A.S. Lappo-Danilevskiy manuscript “Scientific bases of sociology in their historical development” (1911) an analysis is made of the views of this academic on materialistic current in sociology – that of Marxist sociology. Lappo viewed Marxism as a kind of ‘nomothetic approach’ in social sciences assuming that historical materialism in its dogmatic version had exhausted its capabilities. A perspective for this current he saw in transformation of materialistic approach on the basis of recognizing the role of ideas in history, of psychological and epistemological analysis.

Key words: .S. Lappo-Danilevskiy • materialism • nomothetic method • Marxism and sociology

FACTS. COMMENTS. NOTES

LUDAROVA S.V. (Russian state social University, Moscow, Russia)

Russians’ marriages with foreigners and social risks p. 153

Summary. Features of marriages of Russians with foreigners as form of international marriage are analyzed in the article. Its main arguments are constructed on the basis of statistical data related to numbers of registered marriages with foreigners, including gender, data of secondary sociological research on international marriage prospects, contents of Internet sites of marriage orientation as forms of cross-cultural dialogue translation between individuals in global sociocultural space, periodicals, and also on the ideas of the Russian philosophical thought. Special attention is paid to historical analysis of marriage provisions with foreigners in Russia. Main conclusions relate to definition of sociology role in monitoring marriages with foreigners in Russia.

Key words: international marriage • marital choice • geography of marriage choice • marriage market • image of Russia • sociocultural adaptation • social risks

RSHAK .L. (Institute of sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia), RZHV L.V. (Penza state University, Penza, Russia)

Life success in the young people’s views in Russia p. 157

Summary. Secondary analysis of life success studies in Russia shows centeredness on family values, communication, intersting job, reliable friends, acitve life strategy. Results of a survey among student youth in Volga Federal disctrict permitted to conclude linkage of life success of the students here to their own efforts and family support. In ideas of both Russians and the youth, however, significance of ties and acquaintances in contempoary life comes to the forefront, as well as tendency towards incompatibility of success with moral principles. Specifics of ideas about life success are found out with regard to gender, nationality and region

y words: values • life success • life strategies • young generation

ANNIVERSARY

SOKOLOVA G.N. p. 161

BOOK REVIEWS

Reviewed are: Novye idei v sotsiologhii (New ideas in sociology) / Ed by Zh. Toshchenko. .: - , 2013 – revied by L.G. Titarenko (Minsk, Republik of Belarus); Dubson B.I. Soveremenniy Izrail’. Sotsial’njeconomitsheskiye otsherki (Contemporary Israel. Social and economic sketches). ., 2014 – reviewed by V.V. Lublinskiy (Institute of sociology, Russsian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia); Dbren’kov V.I., ravtchenko .I. Metody sotsiologhicheskogo issledovaniya (lassitcheskiy universitetskiy utchebnik) (Methods of sociological research. Classical textbook in sociology). ., 2008 – reviewed by I.V. Popova (Yaroslavl state University, Yaroslavl, Russia p. 162