Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

MONTHLY

2015 No 9 (377)

ONTENTS. SUMMARIES

NTENTS

17th A. Kharchev readings

KIRDINA S.G. (Institute of economics, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia), KUZNETSOVA A.V. (N.M. Emmanuel Institute of biochemical physics, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia), SEN’KO O.V. (A.A. Dorodnitsin Calculation center, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Climate and institutional matrices: cross-country analysis p.3

Summary. The article presents first results of statistical hypothesis testing of institutional matrices theory. Using cross-country analysis, we discovered a significant correlation between climate characteristics and dominance of X/Y-matrix institutions of the nation-state. We used data mining techniques, including methods of principal component analysis and variants of optimal valid partitioning, as well as a set of pattern recognition methods. Sample of 65 countries was used. Our data base included 116 initial indicators obtained from open sources and 15 calculated integral indicators. Computation variants were based on different combinations of indicators and different methods of analysis. We have taken into account non-linear relationship between the indicators. Our hypothesis about a correlation between climate characteristics for the nation-state territory and the dominance of the X- or Y-matrix institutions was confirmed with a probability of 89 to almost 100%. Results are discussed and correlation is explained in conclusion.

Key words: resource turn in sociology • institutional X/Y matrices • climate

AMBAROVA P.A., ZBOROVSKY G.E. (both – B.N. El’tsyn Urals Federal Univerisity, Ekaterinburg, Russia)

At the intersection of science and sociological knowledge: experiences in researching a problem p.14

Summary. Interrelations of sociological and science knowledge in analyses of specific problems are discussed in the article. Rapprochement of these types of knowledge features logic of historical development of the sociology along its way from positivism to post-positivism. The role of postmodernism in developing scientific approaches and treatments of difficult nonlinear social processes is emphasized. Experiences of studying – on the basis of interdisciplinary methodology – of nonlinear social processes and resulting nonlinearity of social time are considered. Characteristics, properties and qualities of nonlinear time – multidegree of structure, alternativeness, uniqueness of temporal processes and the phenomena, their probability, unobviousness, flexibility, instantaneousness, etc. come to light. Special attention is paid to use in the analysis of sociological problems of achievements of neurophysiology, biology, astrophysics, mathematics and endophysics and synergetic approach.

Key words: science knowledge • sociological knowledge • integration of scientific knowledge • nonlinearity of social processes • nonlinearity of social time

PPV .. (Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia; Altai state University, Barnaul, Russia)

Mathematization and ontologization of sociology in perspective of interdisciplinary interaction p. 22

Summary. Interdisciplinary interactions of sociology with natural sciences are discussed focusing on the necessity to co-relate sociology’s mathematization to its ontologization in investigating social problems. Mostly, such interaction is limited to exchange of empiric methods. In author’s opinion, close interaction on the values basis is equally important. This is a situation, where sociology acts as adaptor of methodicval meeans for social scuences and hyumanities. Author argues that sociology has yet to play importanty role in both natural and social sciences and humanities. As for accentuating of co-relations of mathematization with “ontologization”, it is, so author, fundamental for effectiveness of interdisciplinary interactions. To sum up, author pleads for interactions of sociology with other academic branches in the axiological perspective.

Key words: natural sciences • sociology nad methamatics • values • interdisciplinarity • the social and the humanitarian

SOCIOLOGY OF SCIENCE

GAVRILOVA E.V. (Moscow state university of psychology and education, Moscow, Russia); USHAKOV D.V. (Institute of psychology, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia); YUREVICH A.V. (Institute of psychology, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Translation of scientific experience and tacit knowledge p. 28

Summary. We assume that communication of personal (tacit) knowledge is a most problematic process in translating scientific experience to younger scholars’ generation. An empirical study was carried out on the sample of 170 DrSc scholars from the Russian Academy of Sciences, who were winners of the Russian Science Support Foundation award “Best young scientists of Russian Academy of Sciences”. The structural-equation modeling was used for data analysis. The results revealed family and scientific environment factors’ influence on scientific productivity. The data accord to hypothesis about the increasing role of personal knowledge.

Key words: personal knowledge • scientists • education • explicit and implicit learning • scientific productivity

EFENDIEV A.G., SOROKIN P.S., BALABANOVA E.S. (National Research University – Higher School of economics, Moscow, Russia)

Crisis in russian sociology: main problems and thematic deadlocks p. 36

Summary. The paper is devoted to the analysis of the symptoms and sources of the crisis in Russian sociology. Among the great variety of manifestations of this crisis, the authors focus on the uncertainty of the role of sociology in modern society; moving away from scientific rationalisations for social phenomena; growing fusion of the subject area of sociology.The symptoms of crisis mentioned above were subjected to empirical analysis based on bibliometrics and article survey. The sample was drawn from the research articles published in top Russian, American and British sociological journals. Subject areas of 3506 articles in 4 Russian and 6 international journals were investigated through the keywords analysis. Definite prevalence of “culture” and “values” subjects in Russian journals was revealed. Compared to international sociology, such areas as “State” and “public sector” seem to be underexplored in Russian sociology. Russian sociologists, in contrast to international scholars, also tend to pay more attention to local-level social phenomena. The authors argue that Russian sociological community is highly fragmented and lack attention to “real” social practices and fundamental problems of modern society.

Key words: Russian sociology • international sociology • crisis of sociology • bibliometric analysis • subject areas of research

SOKOLOV M.M. (European university at Saint Petersburg, Russia)

Demographic and status profiles of subspecialties in Soviet and Russian sociology p. 49

Summary. Sociology consists of sub-specialties or sub-disciplines diffeing in their subject matters, theoretical presuppositions and methodological preferences as well as in social profiles of their adherents. This paper uses data from what arguable was the two widest censuses of Russian sociological community – member directory of the Soviet Sociological Association of 1970 and files of participants of the Third All-Russian sociological congress in 2008 – to compare demographic and academic status profiles of major subdisciplinary units. It compares their positions on three principal dimensions – gender composition, share of those having higher academic degrees, and per cent of those living in Moscow. For the Soviet period we find strong and independent correlations between positions on all three dimensions with more academic specializations (mostly male and metropolitan) opposing (mostly female and provincial) applied ones. The evidence shows that later period this clearcut pattern of dominance partly decomposed, probably as a result of loss of control the Moscow establishment over channels of academic promotion in the Perestroika period.

Key words: history of Russian sociology • history of Soviet sociology • sociology of sociology

BALYKHIN M.G., GENERALOVA A.V. (Moscow State University of Design and Technology, Moscow, Russia)

Crowdfunding as a platform for supporting research and development p. 57

Summary. The article is devoted to crowdfunding as a rapidly developing area of investing in start-ups in any sphere. It was during the difficult period for the science that particular importance was given to crowdfunding as a collective cooperation of people (donors), who voluntarily collect their money or other resources usually via Internet to support other people’ efforts or organizations in starting innovative venture projects. Crowdfunding as a tool to search and test investment ideas are gaining popularity in Russia nowadays for it allows to attract funding start-ups and venture capital for projects of all types and related activities, the only limiting factor being quality of the advertising campaigns and public interest for the project. This innovative model of financing projects of different types can be used on a much wider scale, at the level of enterprises and even by government agencies. Similar financing venture projects can be actively implemented, for example, in the system of higher education institutions through the establishing – by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation – of a specialized on-line platform where research teams are entitled to position their projects.

Key words: crowdfunding • research and development • investing

DEMOGRAPHY. MIGRATION

RYBAKOVSKIY L.L. (Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Demographic policy concept in Russia: experiences in development and ways of improving p. 62

Summary. The article analyzes concepts of population (2007), migration (2012) and family policies (2014) adopted in Russia in the twenty-first century. Particular attention is given to consideration of the concept of demographic policy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025, as well as the impact that the document and its 2001 predecessor had on the development of regional demographic concepts. The paper analyzed in detail shortcomings at the development stage of all concepts (two demographic, one migration and one family), and suggests possible areas of improving such documents in the future.

Key words: Strategies • concepts • policies • fertility • mortality • migration • family • program • development

BILAN Yu.V. (Szczecin University, Szczecin, Poland); CABELKOVA I. (Faculty of Social Science, Chakles University in Prague, Prague, Czechia)

Interdisciplinary approach to migration studies p. 70

Summary. The disciplinary peculiarities of economy and sociology in the study of external migration are considered underlining limitations of narrow disciplinary approaches. Author discusses the potential of interdisciplinary integration in studying external migration.

Key words: external migration • interdisciplinarity in the study of external migration • non-economic factors of external migration

FILONENKO V.I., GRANOV .S. (both – Center of socio-political studies, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia); PNDLV .V. (Russian Academy of national economy and state service, Office of the President of Russian Federation, Rostov branch, Rostov-on-Don, Russia)

Demographic policies in Russia as seen by population and experts in Rostov region p.74

Summary. Presented are data of sociological research in Rostov region of citizen’s opinion about effectiveness of offical demographic policies. Achievements of these policies in supporting family institute and forming reproductive preferences of the population are stated and major difficulties in successful realization of programs and projects of State demographic polices are identified. Particular attention has been given to expert’s judgments about effectiveness of population policy.

Key words: population policy • family • reproductive preferences • tax on childlessness • mother’s capital

IVANOVA N.A (St. Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation, St. Petersburg, Russia); KUTEYNIKOV A.E. (St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia)

Exit migration of the Magadan region residents to the “Mainland” p. 80

Summary. The article describes results of a questionnaire survey by the authors on migration aspirations of Magadan region residents. It has been found out that 69% of respondents intend to leave the region mostly under the influence of its negative image, which hampers Magadan residents to achieve desirable social status. An illusion has been formed in the minds of respondents that exit to the Mainland, as people call the Southern and the Central regions of Russia, is an openly available channel of the upward social mobility. According to prevailing views, Mainland, in contrast to Magadan, provides greater opportunities for social status increase. Geographical transfer is seen as a means of raising social status allegedly explainable by characteristics of modern social mobility, basically by its greater speed, by status stability, and expected ablity of persons involved to retain and to demonstrate results of mobility.

Key words: social mobility • migration • social status • image of the region • Magadan region

SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION

DENISOVA-SCHMIDT E.V. (Network Fellow at Harvard University, Cambridge, MASS, USA); LEONTYEVA E.O. (Pacific National University, Khabarovsk, Russia)

‘Un-teachable’students as a social phenomenon in Universities: Far Eastern case p. 86

Summary. This paper describes selection of less qualified students by non-elite Russian universities as an institutional trap. Using examples from the Russian Far East authors show that non-elite Russian universities are currently more interested in students than students are interested in universities. This leads to a group of students with a low demand for quality education appearing more important to universities than students with higher demands. In spite of formal strategies for increasing quality of education, universities create a friendly environment for un-teachable students. Authors describe the term ‘un-teachability’, its criteria and recruitment channels of such students to non-elite universities.

Key words: university • higher education • un-teachability • ‘un-teachable’ students

KULAGINA E.V. (Institute of Social and Economic Studies of Population, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Schooling of disabled children and the children with special educational needs: tendencies of development and criteria for regulation p. 94

Summary. On the basis of public statistical data on general education in Moscow and Russian Federation the article analyzes current problems in the sphere of schooling disabled children as well as children with special educational needs: numerucal reduction of special schools, job cuts among teaching and medical staff and transferring children to home education. Author argues that a special feature of Russian social educational politics is contraposition of disabled children to children with special educational needs, which means that these groups should be considered and regulated separately. Factor to decrease availability of quality education is limited resources of Russian regions. In each of them quantity of disabled children and children with special educational needs as well as the quantity of special educational, medical and social institutions differ. Conclusion is made that because of high regional inequalities, implementation of the governmental guarantees should be controlled with due consideration of regional indices. Among them are numbers of disabled children and children with special educational needs, who are taught in special schools, in special classes, in common classes (inclusion) and at home; and, besides, – proportion between the quantity of children and the quantity of teaching/medical staff. An important point is control of education availability for children with special educational needs as well as disabled children with differing disabilities. Some disabled children happen to be outside of the area of legal regulations and statistical surveys.

Key words: Schooling • disabled children • children with special educational needs • special education • modernization of education

TEV D.B. (Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia)

Elite education as channel for recruiting power groups: international experiences p. 102

Summary. In most of the leading countries of the West there is a small group of educational institutions that systemically play a decisive role in selecting and recruiting of power groups, especially economic and administrative elites. With a fairly high degree of social closure, elite education system promotes intergenerational reproduction of privileged and ruling groups of society. Moreover, significance of its reproductive role grows as direct inheritance of power positions becomes impossible, and university diploma turn into a necessary condition for entering elites. This is particularly evident in economic sphere in cases of ownership relations transformation. Furthermore, the system of elite education significantly contributes to the intra-elite integration: in the course of training in a set of schools and universities future members of the elite learn shared values and norms of behavior, forge friendships etc.

Key words: elite • education • recruitment • reproduction • intra-elite integration

SOCIOLOGY OF LAW

BIRYUKOV S.V. (F.. Dostoevskiy Omsk state university, Omsk, Russia).

On the structure of sociology of law (areas of research in Russian academia) p. 111

Summary. Certain fragmentation in existing texts about sociology of law is stated and some ways of systematizing this subject are discussed on the basis of general sociology and jurisprudence texts. Author’s classification assesses as promising issues related to scope of law, “society and law”, forms of law, kinds of legal activities, interaction of law with public system, with system of culture, and personality system. Close interconnection of sociology of law with such areas as “law and economy”, “law and politics”, “law and religion”, anthropology of law and etc. is argued for. The analysis permitted to describe prospects for developing this discipline in Russia, to distinguish such subjects of study that emerge now (sociology of international law, sociology of non-legal law, sociology of “actual” law, sociology of administrative activity, sociology of implementation law by citizens and organizations and etc.). The review allowed to assess meanings (functions) of sociology of law and opportunities for its functioning within the framework of sociology and jurisprudence.

Key words: sociology of law • science subject • official law • social law • law and economics • law and culture • anthropology of law • law and society

SPASENNIKOV B.A., SMIRNOV A.M. (both – of the Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service, Moscow, Russia)

Social and legal characteristics of the convicts serving sentences in Russian correction colonies p. 120

Summary. The article presents social and legal characteristics of the convicts serving sentences of imprisonment in correctional colonies in Russia obtained through use of official statistics, as well as the results of survey conducted in March 2014. The study involved nearly 10,500 male convicts serving sentences in correctional colonies of 16 territorial authorities in Russia. The paper offers a “generalized portrait” of convicts, and an accompanying prognosis.

Key words: sociological study • criminal penalties • convict • convict’s characteristics • correction of convicts • prison

DISCUSSION. POLEMICS

TAVOKIN E.P. (Russian Academy of national economy and state service, Office of the President of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia)

To the question about the concept of social state p. 125

Summary. The paper identifies deficiencies in existing concepts of “socsial state”. A retrospective of forming the concept and its practical implementation is offered and its criteria are analyzed. It is shown that the concept of the social state is a completely artificial, ideology-driven design. The author suggests his own understanding of the term.

Key words: social state • rule of law state • welfare state • justice

FACTS. COMMENTS. NOTES

ROMANOVICH N.. (Russian Academy of national economy and state service, Noronezh branch; ‘Qalitas’ Public opinion studies center, Voronezh, Russia)

Job and citizens: some trends in labor relations of Voronezh citizens p. 135

Summary. Existing discrepancy between market needs and higher education system results in growing numbers of specialists working outside their orignal field of training. At the same time, the market needs for skilled specialists continue to grow. Excess mobility of personnel ceases to be seen as anomalous thus leading to the lowering of job content factor as compared to the rise of salary factor. Now public attitudes change with regard to work and motivation for labour.

Key words: occupational work • labour mobility • working hours • formal contract • employer • official salary • under-the-table pay

PARK JOUNG HO (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Republik of Korea); SLV A.V. (P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl, Russia); JEH SUNG HOON (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Republik of Korea)

lternative mass-media in the Republik of Korea p. 140

Summary. Internet has created a new space for communication forming unique mechanisms to create and transmit information. One of these forms are alternative media that allow users to create their own reports on current issues available to other readers. Alternative media are a new public platform that impacts on solving existing problems and forms public opinion. As a result, they become important translators of public sentiment and can play significant role in election campaigns. The article discusses possibility of alternative media to influence public opinion during presidential elections in Republic of Korea.

Key words: Internet • mass media • alternative media • elections • Republic of Korea

IN MEMORIAM

Memory of V.A. Yadov p. 145

ANNIVERSARY

KIRDINA S.G. p. 147

SARALIEVA Z.M. p. 148

IARSKAIA V.N. p. 149

ACADEMIC EVENTS

VDOVICHENKO L.N. (Russian State University for Humanities, Moscow, Russia).

Second breath of sociology of sport p. 151

TSAPKO .S., TSYBIKOVA D.G. (both – Russian state University for Humanities, Moscow, Russia)

Life world of technical and humanitarian intelligentsia: common traits and specifics p. 154

NIKINA .., KHRUL’ V.M. (both – .V. Lomonosov Moscow state University, Moscow, Russia)

The 6th B. Grushin readings in MGU p. 157

BOOK REVIEWS

BAMIEH ohammed A. (editor, ‘International Sociology’ Book review)

Ways to write a good book review p. 159

Reviewed are: Demograficheskaya entsiklodpedia (Demographic Encyclopedia). ., 2013. Review by A.A. kachenko (Russian Academy of national economy and state service, Office of the President of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia); Grigoriyan E.R. Sotsiologiya kak sotsialniye shakhmaty (Sociology as social chess). ., 2014. Review by .. Tchikaeva (Institute of social sciences, Moscow, Russia). p. 160

BOOKS IN BRIEF p. 166

JOURNALS GUIDE p. 167