Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

SOTSIOLOGICHESKIJ ZHURNAL
(SOCIOLOGICAL JOURNAL)

2015. Vol. 21. No.2

THEORY AND METHODOLOGY

S.A. KOROTAEV. CREATIVITY AND ITS FACTORS: PROBLEMS OF CONCEPTUALIZATION IN RESEARCH 6-30

Korotaev Sergey Aleksandrovich — Laboratory for Comparative Analysis of Post-Socialist Development, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 3 Bolshoy Tryokhsvyatitelsky Pereulok, 123022, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 916 8070844. Email: Sergey_a.k@mail.ru

Abstract. This work is one of the few modern background research on creativity of professionals in Russian literature. The article provides a critical analysis of existing concepts of creativity and influence of various factors on its implementation. Firstly, apropos of the question of domain generality-specificity of creativity, it is concluded that social aspects of creativity may be considered without regard to specific sphere of action. Social factors stimulating creativity, for example, of engineers is supposed will be positively related to creativity of financial analysts. And if an actor is creative in some area of his competence, he will be creative in another one. High level of competence is a necessary quality for creative actions. Secondly, although definition of creativity given by T. Amabile is the most common, it may be too rigorous in research and limit number of relevant examples of creativity. In this case the approach proposed by R. Drazin, et al. may be useful. According to Drazin, creativity is a choice made by an individual to engage in producing novel ideas. Thirdly, probably factors of creativity have been discussed. Summarizing, one can say, that two key conditions for successful creative activity are possibility and desirability of creativity within the framework of existing labour practices. Finally, in the paper it discusses applicability to Russian professionals of results derived from the survey of respondents from Western culture. Finally, it concludes the need of further research in the field of professionals’ creativity in the domestic empirical material.

Keywords: creativity, innovations, professionals, concepts of creativity, factors of creativity.

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SURVEYS, EXPERIMENTS, CASE STUDIES

A.L. ROCHEVA. RESEARCH OF “TENANT CAREER” POSITIONS AND HOUSING MODELS OF MIGRANTS FROM KYRGYZSTAN AND UZBEKISTAN IN MOSCOW 31-50

Rocheva Anna Leonidovna — Research fellow at Russian Presidential Academy for National Economy and Public Administration, Junior research fellow at Institute of Sociology Russian Academy of Sciences. Address: Prospect Vernadskogo, 84/3, of. 2105, 119571, Moscow, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 (916) 135-54-00. Email: anna.rocheva@gmail.com

Abstract. This article addresses a topic that is thoroughly studied in international research but is almost ignored in the Russian social sciences, which is migrants’ residency in the receiving society. The goal of the article is to elaborate on the concept of “housing career” which means change of housing consumption of an individual or a household in the life course. Limiting oneself to the cases of rented premises, the author constricts herself to the concept of “tenant career” and shows the main positions of the career, as well as resources, obligations and social relations which pertain to these positions. The article outlines one of the possible “tenant career trajectories” that goes from the position of a person renting a bed to the position of the “principle tenant”. Moreover, the article discusses three migrant housing models, each of which implies a specific degree of belonging to the place of residence. The minimum belonging is characteristic of a migrant who rents a bed in a flat where he knows no flatmates and even has no idea of their exact number. The maximum belonging is typical for a migrant who rents a room or flat with its aged owner living there when “symbiotic relations” between them are formed: migrants-tenants start caring for the owner who takes less money. The empirical basis of the article consists of 61 interviews conducted in 2013 with migrants from Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in Moscow.

Keywords: housing models of migrants, tenant career, housing career, anonymization, belonging.

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E.A. MIKHAYLOVA, T.V. CHERKASOVA. VALUE-MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATIONS OF STUDENTS IN TODAY'S SOCIOPOLITICAL REALITIES (THE EXAMPLE OF REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN) 51-67

Mikhaylova Elena Aleksandrovna — Candidate of Sociological Sciences; Director of Research, “Remarket”; Associate Professor of Sociology and humanitarian culture of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI; Head of Qualitative Research Department, Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM). Address: Zemlianoj Val str., 24/32, f. 2-“”, 105064, Moscow, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 (903) 011-37-87. Email: socio-expert@mail.ru

Cherkasova Tatyana Vasilievna — Doctor of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology and Social Communication Technologies, Ufa State University of Economics and Service. Address: Chernyshevskogo str., 145, 450078, Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 (937) 337-99-65. Email: tvcherkasova@mail.ru

Abstract. The article discusses value-motivational orientations and patterns of students’ social behavior, formed under the influence of modern social and political challenges. The youth as a social group characterized by a specific position in the social structure. Values and attitudes of young people are influenced by the macro, this social group is the subject of social reproduction and dynamics. Analysis of selected youth life strategies in the rapidly changing social environment (including regional specificity of residence) predicts the development trends and monitor the processes occurring among young people. The results of empirical studies: the All-Russian population surveys (VCIOM, 2014) aimed at identifying the characteristics of perception of today's youth as a social group of Russians and quantitative survey of students in the Republic of Bashkortostan (1992, 1993, 1994, 1999, 2015). The results made it possible to form a representation of the external form of self-identification and characteristics of regional youth to identify common strategies for self-realization of Representatives considered socio-demographic group, consider the patterns of behavior in critical areas, the structure of the value orientations of Bashkir Youth in the changing socio-political environment. The above trends indicate a steady trend to preserve traditional rules governing the intergenerational relations in the Republic of Bashkortostan: the installation of students in the region are characterized by a stable social orientation, based on the traditional mentality, adequate to the Russian reality.

Keywords: the social behavior of young people; attitudes of students; value orientation; the strategy of self-realization; reproduction of values; causes of interpersonal conflicts, forms of deviant behavior.

REFERENCES

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SOCIOLOGY OF POLITICS

K. CLÉMENT. POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION: A CASE STUDY OF TEACHERS 68-91

Clément Karine — PhD in Sociology, Associate Professor, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Saint-Petersburg State University. Address: Galernaya str., 58-60, Saint-Petersburg, 190000, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 (981) 157-75-68. Email: carine_clement@hotmail.com

Abstract. The author analyses the process of political socialization in contemporary Russia using data from biographical interviews with three teachers. Political socialization is understood as a lifelong process of acquisition and transformation of political dispositions and attitudes through primary socialization, social experience in different social worlds, social networks, contextual evolution and significant events. The process can be grasped through the concept of social trajectory. As the three teachers have been chosen with many common socio-demographic features, two of them being close friends, the comparative analysis of their social trajectory and political views (which differ in a large extent) sheds light on some key processes involving in political socialization. The main tendency leads to depoliticization, however contradictory processes can counterbalance this tendency. The case study shows that the most significant processes or social worlds which matter in political socialization are family primary socialization (especially the presence or not of political issues in conversations with authoritative relatives), the subjective experience of labor and the degree of involvement in it, the consequences on personal experience of some significant historical periods or events which give rise to political conversations in everyday life.

Keywords: political socialization, teachers, labor, social worlds, social trajectory, depoliticization, family, biographical interview.

REFERENCES

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7. La politisation / J. Lagroye (ed.). Paris: Belin, 2003.
8. Mishler W., Rose R. Generation, age, and time: The dynamics of political learning during Russia's transformation. American Journal of Political Science. 2007. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 822–834.
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10. Sainsaulieu I., Surdez M. Sens politiques du travail. Paris: Armand Colin, 2012. — 320 p.
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12. Tilly C. Contentious conversation. Social Research. 1998. Vol. 65. No. 3. P. 491–510.

SOCIOLOGY OF RISKS

A.E. ZORINA, A.V. MOZGOVAYA. ECOLOGICAL RISKS AS THE SPHERE OF BUSINESS RESPONSIBILITY 92-113

Zorina Anna Evgenievna — research associate of sector of Risk Problems and Accidents. Address: Krzhizhanovsky St. 24/35, building 5, 117218, Moscow, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 (499) 128-76-51. Email: annacur@yandex.ru

Mozgovaya Alla Viktorovna — Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, the Head of sector of Risk Problems and Accidents. Address: Krzhizhanovsky St. 24/35, building 5, Moscow, 117218, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 (499) 128-76-51. Email: mozgovai@isras.ru

Abstract. In the article the methodological value of the concept of responsibility is uncovered in the sphere of ecological risks management in those communities which are located near plants with risk technologies. The notion “ecological-economy” conflict is under consideration: the conditions of forming, subjects, way of manifestation. There are analyzed Russian and foreign approaches to conceptions of business social responsibility, strategy and practice of its realization. Comparative analysis is realized basing on sociological study among community living near the technologically dangerous plant. In the survey the community had been represented by common schools graduates, plant’s workers and residents. The analysis of plant’s documents demonstrates the fact that ecology protection is one of the main values of its social activity. But the great part of graduates (70%) points out that the plant really is dangerous, risk can’t be compensated and should be adjusted with the community. More than a half of graduates plan to leave the birth-place because of ecological problems and their damage upon people health. More than 65% of residents believe that damage reducing is possible only if the authorities will really act, but only 24% believe that the authorities are interested in ecology protection. Social partnership of authorities, plant and community takes place as the declaration and not as real deal. Meanwhile 46% of residents believe that it is really possible to manage with minimum damage to ecology and 80% are sure that civil society should take more important part in environment protection and decision making.

Keywords: ecological risks, ecology-economy conflict, social responsibility, business.

REFERENCES

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SOCIOLOGY OF MEDICINE

A.A. DARGAN. THE SOCIAL WELL-BEING OF PEOPLE WITH RESTRICTED LIFE SPACE 114-129

Dargan Anna Aleksandrovna — Candidate of Sociological Sciences, the member of the Stavropol city branch of the all-Russian society of disabled people. Address: Tukhachevskogo str., house 23/4, 488, 355040, Stavropol, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 (961) 494-24-27. Email: annadargan@mail.ru

Abstract. The article presents the results of empirical studies of the peculiarities of the social well-being of people with restricted life space depending on the chosen (paternalistic or social) model of disability. This social phenomenon is considered to be the most important part of disabled people’s perception of the world (including individual identity) comprising the following: regarding themselves as disabled people, awareness/unawareness of the fact that disability status is/is not officially acknowledged, awareness of their own intellectual, emotional and physical capacities, having an idea of ways and opportunities to satisfy their basic needs as well as forms of and prospects for their integration into the society. There are objective and subjective factors that influence the social well-being of people with restricted life space and their interaction with the society. The dominant factors in the social well-being of the representatives of this social group include unavailability of accomodation and the lack of rehabilitation facilities for disabled people; acquisition of professional education, employment prospects for disabled people, limited opportunities for satisfaction of their social and cultural needs. The empirical data are used to show that difficulties which a person with restricted life space faces are social problems that result from unequal relationships between disabled people and the rest of society, the unwillingness of the society to take into account the special needs of disabled people. The typology of social behaviour of people with restricted life space is introduced, the following criteria being used: the model of disability chosen by an individual, the attitude of a disabled person to his own disability as well as an active / passive approach to implementation of the strategy for integration into the society.

Keywords: people with disability, people with restricted life space, model of disability, social well-being, integration.

REFERENCES

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HISTORY OF SOCIOLOGY

K.E. NOVIKOV. WORLD-SYSTEM THEORY BY IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN: AN ANALYSIS OF THE IDEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF SOME CONTROVERSIAL ASSERTIONS ON RUSSIAN HISTORY BY IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN 130-149

Novikov Kirill Evgenievich — Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Scientific Associate of the International Laboratory of Political Demography and Macro-Sociological Dynamics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA). Address: Prospect Vernadskogo, 82, Moscow, 119571, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 (919) 967-13-71. Email: kenovikov@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the most controversial aspects of the world-system theory by Immanuel Wallerstein. Trying to force the real world history into the frame of his theoretical model Wallerstein is balancing on the thin line between science and conspirology. He brands the Soviet Union as a ‘subimperial’ power under a secretive control of the United States. He puts forward a very dubious and poorly reasoned theory about an obscure agreement between the two superpowers to imitate the Cold War era hostility just to veil the true nature of their relations. Such an approach makes Wallerstein ignore or distort some historical facts and put forward several unprovable guesstimates. The author of this article makes an attempt to explain the weakness of this hypothesis by applying to the broader context of the Wallerstein’s theory. The Wallersteinean conceptualization of hegemony is being questioned as misinterpreting the historical facts. His theory of hegemony fails to explain the struggle between the non-capitalist countries for the world domination because it recognizes only the capitalistic hegemons. This approach is deeply rooted in the very essence of the Wallersteinean world-system theory. Finally the Wallerstein’s theory is criticized for being politically biased.

Keyword: Immanuel Wallerstein, world-system, hegemony, USSR, USA, Cold War, dependence theory, conspiracy theory.

REFERENCES

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HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY

O.N. YANITSKY. UNIVERSITY, PROFESSORS, STUDENTS’ ECO-ACTIVISM: ON THE HISTORY OF STUDENTS’ NATURE PROTECTION MOVEMENT IN THE USSR/RUSSIA 150-168

Yanitski Oleg Nikolaevich — Doctor of Philosophy, professor, Head of the Department of Socio-Ecological Research, chief researcher, the Institute of Sociology RAS. Address: 24/35, korpus 5, Krzhizhanovskogo Str., 117218, Moscow, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 (499) 128-86-76. Email: yanitsky@mtu-net.ru

Abstract. In the article the author analyses the goals, structure and forms of social activity of students’ Nature protection corps which emerged within academic (university) milieu of the USSR in early 1960s. This movement launched mass environmental movement in the USSR / Russia. The movement is considered as a social environment engendered and shaped the cohort of leaders in the realm of nature and living environment protection. During next 50 years the relationships within the system “movement — academic community” was substantially changed.

Keywords: Academic community, students’ Nature protection movement, university, social capital, Russia.

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REVIEWS, SUMMARIES

G.A. KLIUCHAREV. BORIS DOCTOROV. 10 YEARS OF STUDYING THE HISTORY OF RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGY: A PEER REVIEW ON HIS RECENTLY PUBLISHED WORKS 168-179

Kliucharev Grigorii Arthurovich — Doctor, professor of Philosophy, Director of the Center of sociology of education, science and culture, Institute of Sociology Russian Academy of Science. Address: Institute of Sociology, Krzhizhanovskogo str., 24/35. korpus 5, Moscow, 117219, Russia. Phone: +7 (495) 670-27-40. Email: Kliucharev@mail.ru

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V.V. KARTAVTSEV. [REV.] KOHN E. HOW FORESTS THINK: TOWARD AN ANTHROPOLOGY BEYOND THE HUMAN. BERKELEY: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 2013. — 288 P. 180-185

Kartavtsev Vladimir Vladimirovich — MA in Sociology, Centre for Federative Research Methodology of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. Address: Vernadsky prospect, 82, bl. 1, 119571, Moscow, Russian Federation. Phone: +7 (903) 578-66-64. Email: kartavtsev.vladimir@gmail.com

REFERENCES

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