Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences



2015. Vol. 21. No.3



Muleev E. Yu. “Travel behaviour”, “Motility”, “Mobility”: revisited the conceptualization of terms

Abstract. Foreign experience was studied as part of the Russian travel behavior monitoring study. This paper aims to outline conceptual and methodological differencies between “travel behavior”, “mobility” and “motility” terms. The results of analysis allow us to define two projected paths in conceptualization of the key terms. The first, so-called “management” stream, took into account the “motility” concept. On the other hand we outlined the “academic” concept and the fundamental meaning of “mobility”. But the widespread use results in terminological confusion. As a result, we treat the conceptualization problem as the main issue: how can we differentiate between these terms, especially in the presence of the “travel behaviour” term. We define the “travel behaviour” as a synthesis of two prospects. The deficit of explanation opportunities are explained through analysis of “management” concept. But “academic” tools seem useful for theory and methodology of transportation studies. Moreover, the understanding of travel behaviour in “management” stream is slightly shifting from economics to social issues.

Keywords. travel behaviour; sociology of mobility; motility; mobility; conceptualization the term

Alasheev S. Yu. Veracity of the respondents’ answers to the questions on income

Abstract. The article analyses the problem of respondents answers’ veracity on the basis of empirical data. The sociological research on retirees over the age of 80 proves that there is lack of coincidence between the income records based on the survey data and the factual payments made by the Department of Social Protection. The article contains the description of a sampling procedure, a field research technique and a data acquisition tool. Nonresponses to income questions were analyzed. The difference between factual and declared amounts of retirees’ incomes was revealed; its distribution pattern was statistically estimated. The article concludes by stating that the difference between factual and declared income data is not as large as it is thought by some researchers, at least for the retirees.

Keywords. answers’ veracity; honest of respondents; sensitive question; income; pension payment



Medvedeva K. S. The social representation of Christian orthodox monasticism in contemporary Russia

Abstract. The article discusses the public opinion about Christian Orthodox monasteries and monasticism in contemporary Russia. The analysis is based on the results of the public opinion polls conducted in 2010–2015 by the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM). Materials of the poll by Irina Aster (2009) and multimedia contest “Russia 10” (2013) were also used for the analysis. The analysis shows that monasteries are considered by Russians to be one of the symbols of the country although kept in a “passive cultural stock.” Educated and older respondents seem to be more familiar with famous historical monastics rather than less educated and young people. Public opinion paints the portrait of a hard-working “prayful” monk, whose life choice can be explained using divergent paradigms of “moving away” from the world and “coming to” a monastery, the latter connected with religious and moral issues. Respondents give a wide and varied range of positive motives in joining a monastery than negative ones. However, the attitude of Russians to the potential intention of their relative to become a monk is ambiguous. Polls show a roughly equal share of those whose reaction to such a decision would be “rather positive” or “rather negative.” It is concluded that the image of the monk as the “inok,” the religious “other” is quite acceptable in the modern social and cultural sphere. Monasticism is the cornerstone of Christianity, so the transformation of this institution, as well as the dynamics of public opinion about it can demonstrate the changes in the place and role of religion in society, which is especially relevant given the decline of trust in traditional institutions in contemporary social-cultural space.

Keywords. Opinion polls; Russian Orthodox Church; monasticism and monasteries

Romanovich N. A. The alcohol in Russia: public opinion myths and reality

Abstract. The addiction of Russians to alcoholic beverages is known throughout the world. However this addiction is a consequence of a habit, whereas first steps of getting acquainted with alcohol usually have quite plausible excuse, which appears in fact to be myths. The article reveals seven myths about vodka which are popular in Russian society. The results of public opinion polls that show the degree of the population commitment to these myths with a difference of ten years, 2003–2004 — 2014 (the respondents taken as example are residents of the city of Voronezh). Voronezh is a typical large Russian city, so the changes in public opinion of Voronezh citizens reflect nationwide changes. The author shows that the decline in the consumption of vodka in Russia in recent years is connected with discrediting of the existing myths about the benefits of vodka in certain circumstances.

Russia has taken measures aimed at reducing alcohol consumption per capita. In recent years these measures in conjunction with the changes in economic and cultural life of Russians have been successful. Manufacturers of alcohol facing falling profitability and fighting for survival have reduced the retail price of vodka in order to struggle against illegal substitutes, including moonshine. But the moonshine depending on the technology of its preparation can be either dangerous to health or relatively harmless spirits. Ambiguous attitude to the moonshine is confirmed by the results of opinion polls. The author proves that the sharp rise in demand for moonshine in recent years is not only due to its low cost, but also because of the low quality of alcohol products on store shelves.

Keywords. myth; alcohol consumption; public opinion; Russian vodka; moonshine; ardent spirits; health; quality of spirits



Shkaratan O. I. Social system, facing to the past (Part 1)

Abstract. Social system of modern Russia is regarded as a continuation of soviet socioeconomic order which historical roots have deepened in the centuries-old past of the country — representative of Eurasian Orthodox civilization. Different stages of its development are explored since XIII century to current day. Eventually it is shown the collapse of communist system in Russia has implied a transition of Eurasian civilization to the new stage of its evolution which is Neo-Etacratic socio-economic order and classic authoritarianism.

In the first part of the article the influence of the passed way on social system of modern Russia is putting forward as well as it’s shown that by the middle of XIII century Rus was early feudal society, deeply intertwined with Europe through economic, political, cultural and dynastic links. Horde system, accompanied with Asian despotism and Asian (state) mode of production, introduced classless social structure without private property into Russia. Afterwards state has forever dominated over Russian society and become main factor of its development. Based on this historical ground, estate order has formed as a distinctive institutional and stratification system of Muscovy Rus — as well as tsarist, soviet and post-soviet Russia.

Keywords. Etacratism; Neo-Etacratism; estate system; dualistic social stratification; power-estate relations; state mode of production; Eurasian civilization



Kolozaridi P. V., Uldanov A. A. Internet and social movements: analysis of topic development in ScienceDirect and Scopus databases          

Abstract. Interrelation of the Internet and social movements is one of the core problems for both research domains. This theme is growing more and more demanded and rapidly developing. However the research field is quite heterogeneous and its theoretical and methodological groundings might be not evident. The scholars use a diverse terminological range that hampers the knowledge growth.

In this article we suppose a historical inquiry to the field development in order to trace its thematic and disciplinary transformation. The key question is which stages can be defined and what is the context of the Internet and social movements subject development. We analyze the scientific journals in Science Direct and Scopus databases and suppose a range of explanatory models for understanding this trend.

We found general dynamics of Internet and social movements topic development and disciplinary areas which could be explained as a drivers of publications growth for different periods of time. The key findings demonstrate that subject consists of core and periphery publications, which persist in both databases. We study both articles that are dedicated to Internet and movements and those published in different fields. The discussion reveals the subject triggers on different stages: future studies, management and medicine input, social studies and finally Internet research. We also undercover that Internet and social movements are sometimes used in quite various context as symbols of social changes and new technology challenges for different institutions and groups.

Keywords. discipline history; scientific databases; internet; internet studies; social movements

Davydov S. G.,  Lebedev P. A. Online discourse of the “second wave” of Moscow observers

Abstract. The article is based on the results of the initiative study of references in Russian social media about the “second wave” of social activists observing Russian elections. First wave was revealed during the Presidential elections in March 2012. And the second wave happened in September 2013, when the acting mayor S. Sobianin fought for the post with A. Navalny, strong representative of the Russian opposition.

The study is based on the content analysis methodology. Sample of posts in social media contains 3777 records from 127 different sites and was collected with the help of Wobot online system and coded manually.

The results of the survey proof that social media play an important role in the political process of the modern Russia. Two main topics discussed include, first, dissemination of information (news) about the observers and monitoring the electoral process, and second, the calls to act (i.e. to become an observer).

Discourse on different resources differs significantly. If Twitter is mainly distributed news stories, VKontakte was used more actively for the involvement of Internet users in the observation process. Live Journal concentrates on the opposition discussion. Analysis of reposts shows that communications in social networks were strongly dependent from the opinion leaders and did not imply active publications by “ordinary” users.

Keywords. observers; civil activism; electoral processes; social media; online discourse; social networks analysis



Editorial Introduction   

Doktorov B. Z. Yadov V. A.: "I would say that I have lived an amazingly happy life"        

Clément K. «Liberté. Egalité. Fraternité». Yadov’s style of work             

Klimova S. G. How did Yadov to create the professional community

Tukumtsev B. G. V.A. Yadov’s support for Russian regional sociology, 1960-1980s



Samuil Aronovich Kugel (25 October, 1924 –13 September, 2015)