Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

MONTHLY

2015 10

NTENTS, SUMMARIES

The 17th A. KHARCHEV READINGS

LUBSKIY A.V. (Southern Federal Research University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia)

Interdisciplinary research: cognitive ‘fashion’ or social ‘challenge’ p.3

Summary. The paper discusses reasons of hightening interest in academia for interdisciplinary research. Logical and methodologic bases are put forward to delimitate multi-disciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research from the point of view of post-nonclassical rationality. This research permits to find out specifics of the above research types. It is concluded that specifics of interdisciplinary research result not from simple cooperation of persons laboring in varying sciences, but from synergetic efforts of scholars in differing subject matters.

Key words: interdisciplinarity • cross-disciplinary studies • post-nonclassical rationality • holist revenge

TOLSTOVA Yu.N. (National Research University Higher school of economics, Moscow, Russia)

Mathematical methods as factors linking natural with social and humanitarian sciences (sociology) p.12

Summary. Reviewed is development of ideas about principles of obtaining new knowledge in natural and socio-humanitarian sciences (sociology). Scholars’ conviction in principal difference of methodologies of these sciences was replaced by the opposite view owing to the transition of science from the classical stage over the non-classic one to the post-non-classic stage. Changing treatments are shown of the role of mathematical meth ods in the science, of ideas about the principles of their usages as a response to this tendency. It is asserted that these methods are applicable to any science. In particular, mathematics cannot be attributed to natural sciences, all conclusions are based on emphasizing gnosiological facet of mathematics and on generalisations of measurement principles that are provided by the theory of measurings.

Key words: natural sciences • socio-humanitarian sciences • mathematical methods • methodology • model • knowledge • types of scientism • theory of rationality • measurement

KRAVCHENKO S.A. (Moscow State Institute of international relations (University) of Russian Federation Foreign ministry, and Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences); SALYGIN V.I. (Moscow State Institute of international relations (University) of Russian Federation Foreign ministry, both – Moscow, Russia)

A new synthesis of scientific knowledge: the making of interdisciplinary science p. 22

Summary. Emerging interdisciplinary science is based on a new synthesis of sciences under impact of “the arrow of time” (I. Prigogine). This effect is gradually spreading to the non-linear dynamics of scientific, i.a., sociological, knowledge. Contemporary knowledge acquires reflexivity, assumes the forms of “the making” (P. Sztompka): components of academic nonknowledge (U. Beck) in it are growing, while dynamics of knowledge gain a new vector: transition from their simple accumulatioin via development in the context of paradigmatic essence (T. Kuhn). ‘Turns in sociology” are analyzed, that is changing interactions with natural sciences that imply borrowings of terms and concepts. Response to these challenges the authors see in a synthesis of social, natural and humanitarian knowledge. The core of the bridge idea is discussed which might contribute to forming and making of interdisciplinary science, theoretical and methodological tool set adequate to complicated social and material worlds.

Key words: social and cultural dynamics • “arrow of time” • reflexivity • non-linearity • scientific knowledge • non-knowledge • synthesis of scientific knowledge • humanitarian turn

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

LEVASHOV V.K. (Institute of Social and Political Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia).

Reforms and crises: thirty years later p. 31

Summary. The article deals with the problem of liberal reforms in Russia, in particular, it describes the features of economic crisis of the last thirty years. The author expresses his views on essence, nature and effectiveness of social transformations resulting from statistical and sociological data that characterize dynamics, nature and pace of development of economy and social sphere of society. Conclusion focus on limitations and prospects of the liberal model of economic development. The data of sociological monitoring “How are you, Russia?” on the attitudes of citizens to internal policies of the Russian state and current priorities in its foreign policy, as well as opinions on the effects of the sanctions by the US and other countries are adduced. Finally, recommendations to the attention of state authorities are formulated.

Key words: perestroika • modernization • liberal reforms • economic crisis • sanctions policy • antisanction measures • reform strategy

MOREV M.V., KAMINSKIY V.S. (both – Institute of Social-Economic Development of Territories of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia).

Public administration at the present stage of development of the Russian society p. 39

Summary. The article presents the data of official statistics and public opinion polls characterizing key trends and problems of social development in post-Soviet Russia. The circumstances that determine relevance of public administration in solving key problems of the Russian society today are considered: mentality, experiences of social development in the post- Soviet period, low level of development of civil society. It is emphasized that in view of a majority of Russians democracy is seen as solution of social justice issues guaranteed by a powerful state. Attention is focused on the fact that efficiency of public administration today depends on how “tight” is interaction between state and society. In this regard, it is proposed to increase the role of sociological knowledge at all stages of the legislative process.

Key words: Democracy • efficiency of public administration • civil society • sociology • monitoring public opinion

DAVYBORETS E.N. (Far-Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia)

Elections in Russia: institute of democracy or attribute of authocracy? p. 49

Summary. Elections might arguably either contribute to the making of democracy, or become a cover for authocratic order. It is criteria that matter, permitting to assess matching of organization and procedures of elections to democratic standards. Author proposes a classification of democratic election indices levels. This serves as a basis to analyze electoral process in Russia, its strong and weak sides, its matching to democracy criteria.

Key words: elections • democracy • democracy criteria • electoral process • political technologies • electoral culture

SKOKOVA Y.A. (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia)

Observers at the elections in Russia p. 57

Summary. Last few years were marked by growing civic activities in Russia (aid to victims of fires and floods, peaceful demonstrations and protests), including emergence of a very massive movement of domestic election observers. Hundreds of thousands of Russians across the country started to participate in election observation beginning from federal elections, 2011– 2012. In this context, tree main questions are relevant. How has this movement emerged and developed? What is the qualitative composition of its participants? How socially significat is the movement in terms of its impact on the development of civil society and democracy? Mixed method research was used: qualitative research (7 in-depth interviews), and a quantitative survey (N=1506) conducted online. Results of the study show that despite the fact that people’s participation in election observation was massive, this activity was not chaotic. Process of involving citizens in election observation was based on well-built system, coordinated by new organizations. They distribute videos aimed at attracting citizens to become election observers; train in election legislation; develop and distribute manuals, handbooks and “road maps”; organize “mobile groups”, hot lines, and parallel vote tabulation. Qualitative composition of domestic election observers feature educated people under 45 with relatively high level of material welfare, not members or supporters of parliamentary parties. Moreover, election observers are actively involved in NGOs as well as in volunteering and donations. Activities of domestic election observers in Russia for the last two years enhance development of civic skills and increase levels of legal awareness thus contributing to empowering Russian civil society and democracy.

Key words: movement of election observers • election observers • civil society

ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY

BESSONOVA O.E. (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Russian matrix genesis in the context of the general institutional processes p. 64

Summary. The paper presents an outline of integrated-institutional paradigm in which market and razdatok are regarded as universal and necessary methods of economic coordination as, arguably, general trajectory of institutional evolution in the context of social order. Idea is formulated of the Russian matrix via a cyclic shift of three historical models based on razdatok as institutional core and market playing a subordinate role. The Razdatok economy is an economic system in which non-market factors dominate – supported by market mechanisms; allocation of resources and the products proceeds in the form of distributing wealth and rights in exchange for delivery Contents. Summaries 173 in form of products or service. Razdatok institutional core comprises socio-service property, relationships of the delivery-distribution, complaints and petitioning as feedback mechanism, and service work. Retail trade and private enterprise are here compensatory. Current crisis in Russian society is associated with depletion of quasi-market model in the transformation phase. Quasimarkets differ from classical markets in that they rely on buy-and-sell (exchange) mechanisms. While classical market is driven by the interests of entrepreneurs and consumers, the quasimarket relies on entrepreneurship to serve interests of power structures. It is shown that through integration of market and razdatok institutions evolution formed “contract razdatok” – a new type of institutional system both in relation to transfer economy of the Soviet Union and post-Soviet quasi-market.

Key words: market • razdatok • quasi-market model • transition economics • institutional matrix • integrated-institutional paradigm

TSHERNYSH M.F. (Institute of sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Institutional matrix theory: a critical review p. 74

Summary. The papers reflects on the role and meaning of institutional matrixes in the making of modem societies. Capabilities and limitations of institutional analysis are discussed with regard to current history of our country as proposed by S.G. Kirdina aha widely opening vistas for diagnostics of challenges facing Russian society. This trend in its extreme forms, however, amounts to sociological monism and hinders penetration into real causes of changes in contemporary world.

Key words: social institutions • institutional matrixes • social changes • individualization

SOCIAL POLICIES. SOCIAL STRUCTURE

BOROZDINA E.A. (European University at St.-Petersburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia)

Care and Social Citizenship p. 84

Summary. In sociological studies politics and practices of care are frequently addressed through citizenship theories. Some authors consider care as one of citizens’ social rights to be protected by the state. Others on the contrary emphasize the fact that pragmatics of care exceeds liberal logic. This article is based on analysis of sociological researches on care, and its main aim is to depict how relation between categories “care” and “citizenship” can be conceptualized in academic labors.

Key words: social care • social citizenship • ethics of care

TKACH O.A. (Centre for Independent Social Research, St.-Petersburg, Russia)

“Caring Home”: Kin-Related Elderly Care and Issues of Cohabitation p. 94

Summary. This paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with care providers who experienced cohabitation with their elderly sick relatives (parents/parents-in-law) and everyday instrumental and emotional caring. The paper applies a set of conceptual approaches suggested by contemporary ageing, care and home studies. They consider home constructed for kin-related elderly care on structural and everyday level – as one of the localities used for familial care model, on the one hand, and changing and contradictory space produced by boundary work in private sphere, on the other. The first empirically based part of the article provides family background that facilitates a decision of several generations. Then I analyze how newly built home has been adapted materially, practically and emotionally to special needs of elderly relatives. The next part conceptualizes “caring home” though the dynamic of its relations with / outer world and its internal interactions/conflicts concluding with structural and everyday dimensions of “caring home”. Kin-related elderly care model as relevant to the Mediterranean type, has been reproduced in Russian context due to deficit of social infrastructure, deprived status of elderly patients in the realm of public health care, underdeveloped market of paid nurses, and inertness of ideology of obligatory kin-related elderly care. Monopoly of this ideology and practice has been criticized by middle class representatives. “Caring home” allows compensating the deficit of public institutes, but limits generations’ right for private life and minimizes emotional comfort of household members – a vicious circle of kin-related elderly care in Russian urban households.

Key words: home • transformation of home space • kin-related elderly care • extended family • intergenerational relations • cohabitation of relatives

ORLOVA U.L. (Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania)

Factors of life quality of assisted elderly people p. 103

Summary. Social scientists emphasize importance of factors influencing quality of life of elderly people, especially those in need of social assistance. Aim of the paper is to present findings of grounded theory research on the subjective quality of life of socialy dependant elderly people, living in long term care institutions. The data consists of 21 semi-structured interviews analysed by constructivist version of grounded theory methodology (K.Charmaz). The interviwees are elderly people living in residential care institutions in Lithuania (aged 60-92). Folloing factors of life quality were identified: (1) independence and self-sufficiency; (2) re-creating the important life moments via memorializaton practices; (3) sustaining lively social links with important social actors; (4) acceptance of assistance services; (5) vitality (both physiological and psychological).

Key words: life quality • aged people • residential care institutions

ELIUTINA M.E. (N.G. Tshemyshevskiy Saratov State University, Saratov, Russia)

Aged people: attitude to death and tanatical worries p. 111

Summary. Based on the use of qualitative methodology, meaning’s localization of death in the space of life of the elderly people is discussed in context of traditional views dominated by material and economic considerations connected to death. It is shown that high price of death and awareness of financial insolvency give rise to various kinds of preventive practices.

Key words: attitude to death • death price • funeral services • death anxiety

METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

ROGOZIN D.M. (Russian Academy of National Economy and State Service, Office of the President of the Russian Federation, Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Biographic method: review p. 120

Summary. A review is offered of recent literature on biographic method. While dominant in advances of biographic methodology approach are German and French theoreticians, publications shaping the trends in this field are in English. Understanding biographic turn in humanitarian knowledge is impossible without detailed studies of the published texts. The present paper is a kind of outline map, where list of literature is a necessary and sufficient tool to penetrate the field of biographic research projects.

Key words: biographic approach • biographic method • biographic turn • life depiction

SAVELIEV Yu.B. (Taras Shevtchenko Kiev National University, Kiev, Ukraine)

Cohort analysis and the issue of delimitating components of social changes: method of linear trend de-composition p. 130

Summary. Possibilities and limitations of linear trend de-composition method are reviewed [Firebaugh, 1989; 1992] related to cohort analysis while studying societal changes. Situations are specified when its application is effective to” understand the nature of societal changes in comparative perspective. Advantage of using objective statistical criteria to delimitate effects of historical period and cohort replacement under conditions, when the studied sign does not essentially change with the age, is discussed.

Key words: societal changes • cohort analysis • method of linear de-composition • values

SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION

RYZHOVA S.V. (Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Ethnoconfessional identity and the formation of religious and political orientations p. 136

Summary. The paper aimes at assessing secular and religious orientations of Russian citizens, in particular at the problem of ethnic confessional identity and theoretical approaches to studying it. Results of sociological research in Bashkortostan permitted to analyze attitudes towards establishing religious political parties and strengthening religions’ influences on the State. Interconfessional tension risks are discussed as well as clerical values in the context of Russian society consolidation, of political religious orientations of Muslims and Orthodox believers and Contents. Summaries 175 bases for interconfessional trust between them. Particular attention is paid to younger people perception of state-religion relations.

Key words: ethnoconfessional identity • ethnic identity • Muslims • Orthodox • political religious orientations • interconfessional trust • Bashkortostan

PODLESNAYA M.A. (Orthodox St.-Tikhon State University, Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences); MELNIKOVA V.V. (Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, both – Moscow, Russia)

The role of religious community in guiding spoilt identity p. 145

Summary. In the article a case of empirical research in Orthodox parish is presented. This parish is working with adult disabled people aged 20 to 30. Vital strategy of adult disabled people, their opportunities, and relation to disabled people and disability (to an illness problem in general) of the society and its church part are described on bases of data obtained by in-depth interviews with teachers of the religious community, engaged with disabled people, and also on data of the focus groups with disabled people.

Key words: “spoiled identity” • stigma • religious community • illness and health discourse • life world of disabled person • life strategy ofdisabled person

SPECIAL OPINION

KARPOV A.O. (N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technological University, Moscow, Russia)

Dissonant tolerance as an alternative to positive tolerance of multiculturalism p. 152

Summary. The article questions traditional understanding of tolerance, which requires a positive attitude towards another ethno as traditional understanding underlying the politics of multiculturalism. This hypothesis suggests that the cause of multiculturalism failures is an attempt to eclectically link ideas of social integration of classical models coming from American sociology. Causes of their psycho-social groundlessness are considered in terms of sustainable social communication establishment aimed at conflict-free coexistence of different cultural groups. The principle of dissonant tolerance determining logic of ethno-social development alternative to multiculturalism has been substantiated and implications for education area have been discussed. The tasks for dissonance approach in ethno-sociology are formulated.

Key words: tolerance • multiculturalism • social communication • identity • psychics • integration • dissonance • education

REFLECTING ON A NEW BOOK

BIRIUKOV A.A. (Amur State University of Humanities and Pedagogy, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia)

Emergence of Precariat or Return of Proletariat? (Analysing “The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class” by G. Standing) p. 158

Summary. Analysed is background of precariat concept coined by British economist and sociologist G. Standing. Main idea advocated by Mr. Standig is the emergence of a new social class called precariat different from both middle class and traditional proletariat. Distinct features of the precariat are weak links with state, irregular income, loss of rights and social safeguards and absence of professional identity. The author discusses Mr. Standing’s ideas. Precariat obviously appears not differ from proletariat either in its relation to means of production or to its position and role in the system of social production. Drawbacks of Standing’s concept leads him into a methodological deadlock. It can be noticed in his description of proletariat as a class consisting of workers employed on a long-term regular basis and having fixed working day. Mr. Standing also shows proletariat as a class possessing some social privileges and opportunities such as promotion prospects, trade-union membership, collective bargaining and so on, an obvously shallow approach. Mr. Standing’s desire to draw a clear distinction between the proletariat and the precariat borders on unhistoricism and Eurocentrism. Moreover, so author of the review, emergence and expansion of the precarization phenomenon (coupled with the expansion of informal employment) proves emergence of important changes in the modem system of social relations connected to overall deterioration of proletarians’ position in the world.

Key words: Guy Standing” precariat” proletariat” social class” Marxism, capitalism” informal sector

BOOK REVIEWS

Ivanov V.N. Sociology in the USSR. Notes of Institute Director (Sotsiologiya v SSSR. Zapiski directora instituta. M., 2014 reviewed by Zapesotskyi A.S. (S-PSUTU); Sociology of management and administration, Applied Theoretical vocabulary (Sotsiologiya upravleniya. Teoretikoprikladnoi slovar’). A.V. Tikhonov – head editor. M., 2015 reviewed by A.A. Potchestnev (MAI (SRU); Afanas’iev V.V. Christian Ortodox Sociology: A textbook (Pravoslavnaya Sotsiologiya: uchebnoye posobie). M., 2015 reviewed by Shchukina N.P. (Samara State University)

SOCIOLOGY OF FAMILY

NOSKOVA A.V. (Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University), Moscow, Russia)

New methodological approaches, research foci, debatable issues of sociology of family p. 177

Summary. The paper analyses changes in family studies since the end of the 20th century. The turns in sociological theory and influence of family transformations are among reasons for these changes. Diversity of sexual cohabitations, distribution of new types of reproductive and parental behavior, changes in gender roles have caused the need for renewal of methodology and mainlines in family research. Turns in the sociological theory are dealt with, which led to methodology turns in the family studies. Author investigated a turn from macro-approach to micro one, a turn from structural functionalism to constructivism, a turn from institutional approach to family practices. New directions in family research are discussed such as nontraditional families, new fatherhood and childlessness. Final part of the article addresses academic discussion about family future. Author draws attention to ambivalence of recent family processes. On the one hand, new phenomena in the family sphere spread. On the other, traditions like values, marriage orientation, and intergeneration solidarity are intact.

Key words: family • family transformations • practical turn in family studies • new fathers • childlessness • non-traditional families • discussion of family future

ISUPOVA O.G. (SRU HSE, Moscow, Russia)

Mothers career: children and employment strategies p. 185

Summary. Specifics of mothers’ behavior in the Russian labor market of 1990th, as well as those during ‘capitalist stabilization’ of the 2000th are reviewed. Data permit to make retrospective assessment of female strategies to combine labor activity with motherhood also during decades from 1940th on. Main accents of the paper are: in 1990–2000th motherhood was effected under conditions of gradually weakening role of institutional support and growing role of personal responsibility. In-formal kin and social networks became more and more popular, their strength, however, with regard to weaker institutions’ role failed to emerge. Women’s orientation to labor market participation was stably high independent of their ideas about ‘main role’ of woman in family and society. Mothers’ adaptation to changing situation was thus made to be flexible and asked for intensive labor efforts – combining domestic and paid labor.

Key words: motherhood • children • labor • strategies • career

METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

KOVSHOV D.K.(Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF), Arzamas, Russia); KOVSHOVA E.S. (Perm Pedagogical University for Humanities, Perm, Russia)

Graph theory application to sociometric data analysis. p. 195

Summary. A mathematical model of interpersonal relations is proposed. Relations are interpreted as attraction or repulsion of individuals in an abstract “sociometric space”. An improved graphic method of sociometric data processing based on this model is formulated consisting in building a “map of a group”, which detects and visualizes internal structure of the group.

Key words: interpersonal relations • sociometry • sociogram • map of a group • sociometrical space • emotions • communication