Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences


2015. Vol. 21. No.4


N. V. Basov, A. E. Nenko, A. M. Khokhlova. Reality of Art: Communication and Knowledge Creation

Nikita V. Basov - Center for German and European studies (St Petersburg State University – Bielefeld University), Russian Federation,, Candidate of Sociology, scientific manager

Aleksandra E. Nenko - Center for German and European studies (St Petersburg State University – Bielefeld University), Russian Federation,, Candidate of Sociology, researcher

Anisya M. Khokhlova - St Petersburg State University, Russian Federation,, Candidate of Sociology, Associate Professor, Faculty of Sociology

Abstract. The paper proposes a theoretical and methodological framework to study art as an autonomous reality, where knowledge is seen as a set of collectively shared meaning structures dynamically socially created throughout communication. The latter is triggered by artworks as stimuli, intermediaries and products of communication, evoking intellectual and emotional resonance between the creators and various publics, thus being both catalysts and reference points in the process of collective meaning construction. It is shown, that the mechanisms of knowledge construction in art are communicative by nature, as well as dynamic and heterogeneous, bringing various participants to interact in numerous situations enabling shared meaning creation, including interactions that can hardly be labelled as professional. Yet, knowledge structures generated and reproduced by the artistic reality should be seen as meaning structures in their own right, rather than a bare projection of social relations and conventions represented by the reality of everyday life. Though using the meaning constructs of everyday life and objects as building blocks, creative work and artistic communication linked to it are often able to produce new combinations of materials and meanings not corresponding the existing social relations and conventions. This makes the boundaries between the reality of art and the reality of everyday life transparent yet persistent, which allows art to maintain autonomy of its knowledge structures and communication patterns while at the same time to expand and to involve new participants into its reality.
Keywords: art; interaction; meaning; structure; network; object; boundary; reality of everyday life


N. L. Rusinova, V. V. Safronov. Health in the European states: SES Inequalities and Social capital

Nina L. Rusinova - Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation,, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Head of the Sociology of health department

Viacheslav V. Safronov - Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation,, Senior Fellow

Abstract. The article is devoted to a problem of social capital’s influence on SES inequalities in health.  The European Social Survey data for 27 countries (ESS Round 6, 2012) and statistics for these countries (World Bank, Eurostat, etc.) were analyzed by means of hierarchical two-level modeling. In all states, whatever was the level of their general welfare, there were considerable inequalities in health between the lower and top layers of social structure. Social capital — interaction networks, social support and trust — promotes strengthening of health in any social strata.  In many countries the buffer effect is shown — the social capital promotes smoothing of SES inequalities due to more noticeable improvement of health in the lower layers in relation to the top.  Nevertheless such effect (statistically highly significant) is not very strong and depends on a context. It can be found with higher probability in the most advanced European countries — with strong economy, low income inequality and “social democratic” regime of welfare state. In less developed parts of Europe presented by Russia and other Post-Soviet states and in countries with “liberal” or “mediterranean” regime, compensatory influence of the social capital, as a rule, is not found.
Keywords: SES inequalities in health; social capital; buffer effect; European Social Survey 2012; hierarchical two-level modeling
 V. B. Zvonovsky, D. U. Merkulova, J. V. Solovieva. New Russian suburban’s settler: “aliens” or “domectic”

Vladimir B. Zvonovsky - Samara State Economy University, Russian Federation, zvb@fond.sama.ruDoctor of Sociological Sciences

Daria U. Merkulova - Samara Social Research Institute, Russian Federation, research@fond.sama.ruCandidat of Philosophical Sciences

Julia V. Solovieva - Samara Social Research Institute, Russian Federation,, project director

Abstract. The article presents the results of a study of new urban communities formation in the suburbs of large Russian cities, particularly the demographic Items of the population. Since the late 2000s, when the rise of the urban population and a shortage of affordable housing took place, projects on integrated development of areas located in the immediate vicinity of the “parent” of cities started to implement in the residential real estate market in some major cities of the Russian Federation. These areas include residential areas in Samara, Rostov-on-Don andKemerovo.

The study is of an innovative kind not only because of the resent absence of the object, but also because of the new area’s kind. In the past century, the planning of such areas used to be centralized, and the study of emerging lifestyle in the new urban districts usually took place as industrial studies (for example, in the framework of the sociological service enterprises, that gave birth to city districts). The peculiarity of the current stage of development of Russian cities is a fundamental lack of coordination of actions, strategies and interests of different social groups and institutions involved in the process of genesis of the new districts. Another important difference of the new districts is their presence in the open real estate market. It means that in the new areas there are more residents who have acquired the apartment of their choice, taking into account their advantages and disadvantages. As a result, there has been formed a specific portrait of their residents, reflecting the intentions and capabilities of people, and the analysis of this portrait will give us a foundation for seeing a part of the urban population that is the most active in this form of behavior.

The main hypothesis was confirmed: the main part of the inhabitants are residents of other cities and towns / localities that couldn’t find an opportunity to move to central districts of a big city and settled on its periphery.
Keywords: city; urban; suburban; migration; everyday life; optimism; space


O. I. Shkaratan. Social system, facing to the past (Part 2)

Ovsey I. Shkaratan - National Research University – Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation,, Doctor of Sciences in Historical Sciences, Professor of Sociology, Honored Scientist of Russian Federation, Tenured Professor; Head of Laboratory for Comparative Analysis of Post-Socialist Development

Abstract. Social system of modern Russia is regarded as a continuation of soviet socioeconomic order which historical roots have deepened in the centuries-old past of the country — representative of Eurasian Orthodox civilization. Different stages of its development are explored since XIII century to current day. Eventually it is shown the collapse of communist system in Russia has implied a transition of Eurasian civilization to the new stage of its evolution which is Neo-Etacratic socio-economic order and classic authoritarianism. By 1917 the European line in development of Russia hadn’t yet won which conditioned by the fact that that private property hadn’t become tradition for most Russians. Hereon recovery of estate system, conversion into estates by state, forming of peculiar service stratum had become possible. In other words path dependence theory brought into life, reproducing in –I centuries power-estate relations of, it would seem, dead and gone medieval Rus. For centuries inside of highly stable etacratic order the estate hierarchy and authority had being recovered in modified way under conditional rights of everybody except for all-powerful sovereign (differently titled in each epoch — a Prince, a Tsar, a Imperator, a General Secretary, a President). The nature of socioeconomic system formed in post-soviet Russia — Etacratism in new phase of its development i.e. — Neo-Etacratism. The role of state is still dominating, but it isn’t the only one as it was in USSR because private-property market component matters. In Russia dualistic social stratification combining estate (dominating) and socio-professional hierarchies has formed.

Keywords: Etacratism; Neo-Etacratism; estate system; dualistic social stratification; power-estate relations; state mode of production; Eurasian civilization



R. Sharovich.The influence of the socialist system in the disappearance of villages in Montenegro

Rade Sharovich - the University of Montenegro, Montenegro,, Doctor of Sociology, the Faculty of Philosophy

Abstract. The rapid decrease in population, and then a production shutdown rural communities in Montenegro, primarily as a result of the lack of long-term policies for agricultural and rural. The socialist system is primarily running the ambitious project of transforming society, fundamentally shook former agrarian structure and traditional rural life. Industrialization, nationalization, colonization, collectivization, planning and directing the production, the basic measures that sought to overcome inherited the post-war situation. In order to fill out the demographic and serving the needs of industry, measured by the inadequate and democratic society rough forms of pressure on the peasantry. Individual farming industry ceases to be of special public interest, which is strongly influenced by the overall integrity of the village, rural society and the life of the farm. In such a balance of power, more economy stagnates and becomes insignificant part of the social structure, devoid of almost all influence in the social chain of action. The above changes have contributed to the short period of time Montenegro yarn path from a purely agrarian society to an urban partially developed as it is today. This paper presents a brief summary of the Montenegrin rural drama, where the end is not in sight.

Keywords: village; demographic trends; deruralization; agrarian; urban; Montenegro



A. B. Sinelnikov. Marriage, Fatherhood and Motherhood In Russian Society

Alexander B. Sinelnikov - Moscow State Lomonosov University, Russian Federation,, Ph.D (in Economics), Associate Professor of Family Sociology and Demography Department, Faculty of Sociology

Abstract. In modern Russia (and in many other countries) there is a popular opinion that the father's role is much less important than the role of the mother. Many women are convinced that a normal family is possible without marriage, and single mothers are able to raise children in normal conditions without a father. Other mothers think that they can find for the children of his stepfather, who will care more for them than his father. Some scientists argue that the family is not destroyed, but only changes its form. From their viewpoint is the evolution in a positive direction. However by the author’s opinion, the separation of marital, maternal and paternal behavior is not positive evolution, but the destruction of the family, which fewer and worse performs the functions of reproduction and upbringing of new generations.

Keywords: marriage; fatherhood; motherhood; family; evolution of family; crisis of family



 V.N. Yarskaya-Smirnova: “Like many of those years, my way into sociology was not easy: My starting point was the philosophy” / Interview prepared by B.Z. Doktorov

Valentina N. Yarskaya-Smirnova - Gagarin State Technical University, Russian Federation,, Doctor of Philosophy Sciences, Professor



B. Z. Doktorov. Vladimir E. Shlapentokh (October 19, 1926 – October 6, 2015)


I. A. Shmerlina. On the Value Attitude to Abstract Categories. [REV.] Bychenkov V.M. Institutes: Overcollective entities and impersonal forms of social subjectiveness. M.: The Russian Academy of social sciences, 1996. 976 p.

Irina A. Shmerlina - Institute of Sociology Russian Academy of Science, Russian Federation,, Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Senior scientist



Y. M. Baskakova, N. N. Sedova. VCIOM projects studying the best global practice of electoral research and forecasting

Yuliya M. Baskakova - VCIOM; Institute of Sociology of RAS, Russian Federation,, Candidate of Political Sciences,  research project manager; Senior Researcher

Natalia N. Sedova - VCIOM; Institute of Sociology of RAS, Russian Federation,, Scientific Assistant,  director general; Senior Researcher



Books and Bulletins published on the Official website of the Institute of Sociology RAS, 2015

INDEX, 2015