Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

MONTHLY

2016 2

ONTENTS. SUMMARIES

 

THEORY. METHODOLOGY

Kiyashchenko L.P. Interdisciplinarity – the area of interaction of philosophy and sociology (3-11)

Abstract. Interdisciplinarity in contemporary philosophy of science and polyparadigmatics in sociology are treated in the article as a response to the challenge of the search for lost unity in diversity of modern forms of research. Combination of incongruous things – the unity in diversity and diversity in unity, forming a “centaurproblem” of human activity – is proposed to consider in the modus of possibilities to exercise human freedom and responsibility in culture.

Keywords: interdisciplinarity; transdisciplinarity; polyparadigm; centaur-problem; ambivalence; interval approach; modality of humans

Yakovenko .V. Mutual co-influence of natural and socio-humanitarian sciences on social processes (12-19)

Abstract. The article presents an analysis of social consequences caused by implementation of ideas and development of natural and humanitarian knowledge. The whole complex of ambiguous influences of various scientific directions on society is divided into three interrelated areas: production-technological, humanitarian and status-role. Each of these areas presents characteristics of social consequences of radical transformations, which are usually defined as “revolutions.” In particular, among major radical changes in industrial and technological sphere, author gives characteristics to technological-manufacturing, information-communication, biotechnological and consumer revolutions; in humanitarian sphere – social-political, educational, global-humanitarian, anti-clerical and intellectual revolutions; and in status-role sphere – anti-social class, gender, sexual and generational revolutions. Author briefly describes positive and negative assessments of each of them, as well as issues of their influence directly on personality. Attention is paid to the fact that formal emancipation of personality is accompanied by creation of the new system of imaginary freedoms and real dependences. The article states relevance of the questions about meaning of life existence in infrastructure-saturated and ideologically ambiguous world. It is emphasized that consequences of the sixth economic order should be based on the idea of close coordination of breakthrough discoveries in natural sciences, initiating access to micro level (nano-technologies), finding digestible conscious plans of transition to self-sustainable, socially responsible and creative personality. It is also necessary to take into account the contradiction between the desire to improve predictability of social processes through widespread introduction of achievements of natural sciences especially in biotechnology and the risk of creating a kind of electronic-information-biological neo totalitarianism with new/old hierarchies. The article states lack of productive international interaction between representatives of natural and social-humanitarian sciences with appropriate financial and media support of leading countries, influential international organizations, financial institutions and transnational corporations in order to solve key ambitious goals of productive projects in humanistic social development.

Keywords: social processes; personality; revolution; scientific achievements; technological mode; meaning mindsets

 

ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY

Bodrunov S.D. Re-industrialization: socio-economic parameters of reintegrating production, science and education (20-28)

Abstract. The paper shows that Russia is facing problems which have as one of their reasons deep deindustrialization, which led to systemic adverse social and economic consequences. To identify the nature of deindustrialization author uses the term “four “D” effect” (by analogy with the famous “four “I” concept” in the Russian economic policy – institutions, investment, infrastructure, innovation): disorganization of the production process, degradation of the industrial technologies, deskilling of labor force in production, decomplication (simplification) of the production product. Alternatively, the author offers a reindustrialization course based on the priority development of high-tech material production, integrated with science and education and aimed at the progress of human qualities. These economic changes will cause significant social shifts, in particular, growth of human potential of the Russian Federation. The author identifies following major blocks to a new socio-economic strategy of Russia: 1) focusing primarily on the revival of the still existing backlog of high-tech orders; 2) support in project implementation on market incentives, public-private partnerships, long-term state programs and active industrial policy; 3) designing the long-term development institutions for organizational and legal support for this policy; 4) advancing development of the system of multi-level vocational education, integrated with the production and the science oriented on industry; 5) support for scientific research aimed at solving problems of Russian industry development. The last two aspects are particularly important because successful solution of social challenges facing the country and development of production is impossible without its profound integration with science and education.

Keywords: labor; personal qualities; social economic development priorities; reindustrialization; manufacturing; science; education

Bessokirnaya G.P. Researching labor motivation in post-reform Russia, 1990–2010th (29-38)

Abstract. This article analyzes data of labor motivation studies in Russian society currently undergoing a transformation with particular emphasis on the methods of studying this motivation. It demonstrated that the most frequently utilized methods (in the Soviet times, as well as in post-Soviet period) do not provide adequate information that can be applied directly to the practices of managing work process of the employees. With the help of these methodologies, we are able to identify the value systems of everyday consciousness, but not the motivational importance of labor factors. Based on the materials of a study, conducted at two private industrial enterprises from 2013 on, by using direct questions, we found out that labor motives there are: good salary, work safety, convenient work hours, relations with co-workers, adequate sanitary-hygienic conditions, job security, relations with management and interesting work. Author proposes a new methodology, in which definition of the relevance and significance of the elements of production situation is based on the analysis of correlation between indicators that reflect a balance between work values (aspirations) and ability to implement them in the labor activities (character of the current work), on the one hand, and nature of the identification of the workers with the company, on the other. As a result of its application for the workers at two private industrial enterprises from 2013 – the labor content and utilization of their abilities under current production situation appeared to be the most significant. Public recognition of their work efforts, relations with management and job security also turned out to be a significant element of production situation. Proposed methodology can be utilized to identify controllable factors of labor activities of workers at specific industrial enterprises.

Keywords: labor motivation; work motives; production situation; factors of labor; workers

Varshavskaya E.Ya. The school-to-work transition success: for whom is the way easier? (39-46)

Abstract. Transition from school education to working life is a crucial phase in lives of youth. There is ample evidence that initial difficulties in this process might have lasting consequences. Main purpose of the paper is to analyze school-to-work transition of Russian youth. It is based on the results of a special survey of young people aged 15–29 conducted in 2012 in 11 regions of the Russian Federation. Funding for the surveys came from the Work-Youth partnership between the ILO Youth Employment Program and The MasterCard Foundation. Level of education is a key factor for a successful transition to the labor market. Post-secondary vocational and tertiary education, first of all the higher education, increases success of the school-to-work transition, increasing employment rate of graduates, significantly reducing risks of unemployment and economic inactivity, reducing length of transition. Young person with a university degree transited, on average, three times faster than the youth with lower secondary education. Our results indicate that young people with lower secondary education have highest risks of long unemployment and exclusion from the labor market. Combining study and work is also significant factor. Results show that young person who don’t work during their studying spent, on average, twice longer time to complete their labor market transition than students who combine study and work. Youth living in urban areas have advantage in terms of completing the labor market transition but gap between gender and settlement groups decreases with education level growth. Duration of transition to the first job highlights a dichotomous situation: a large group of youth is able to obtain a job within three months after leaving school, while smaller part of youth faces very long transition time.

Keywords: school-to-work transition; youth economic inactivity; youth unemployment; jobless

Ovcharov .. Risk assessment of tourism industry (47-56)

Abstract. The subject of the research is risk factors of tourist arrivals, specificity of their recording and modeling. Methods of statistical observation and sociological analysis were used. The paper summarizes data of statistical forms and shows positive and negative trends in the development of tourism in Russia. It is concluded that the tourist industry in Russia is focused on outbound tourism rather than on inbound or internal one. A method for determination of integral indicator of tourism risks is proposed – system of risk factors provided in the form of estimated consumers of tourism services. A special scale to measure the risk is offered. This scale was constructed in such a way that highest risk was the top score. Database is from two sample surveys in 2008 and 2014. Data were processed in such a way that the total risk was received in comparison to the tourist regions and types of tourism. On the basis of survey data we assessed force of the influence of risks on touring Russian citizens. In assessing the type of tourism, the highest risk level has event tourism, and in assessing the geographical – European tourism product. Major risk factors impeding comfortable rest of Russian citizens are long hours of flight delays.

Keywords: tourism industry; risk; consumer of services; types of tourism; tourist regions

Sljykic M., Sljukic S., Marinkovic D. Practices of employing workers in Serbia industrial enterprises (57-61)

Abstract. The aim of this paper is to point out the significance of the social capital in the employment for industrial organizations in Serbia under conditions of increased unemployment, reduced possibilities of workers to improve their chances and social position by collective action and the absence of synchronization between the process of formal education and demands of the industries.

Keywords: employment; industrial workers; post-socialist transformation; Serbian society; social capital

 

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Smirnov V.A. Project activity of Russian non-profit organizations: key problems and contradictions (62-69)

Abstract. The article presents a sociological analysis of grant activity of Russian non-profit organizations. Analyzing the content of grant applications and projects of Presidential grants winners, author concludes a low efficiency of this activity, its simulated nature. As main method of research quantitative content analysis was used of all grant applications submitted for funding in competition for Presidential grants.

Keywords: non-profit organizations; social planning; grant competition; content analysis

Zinchenko G.P. Public service in the subject field of sociology (70-75)

Abstract. The paper presents a self-analysis of public service showing specifics of administrative activities. It also gives basic approaches to realization of measures to transform public service: projects, technologies and consulting. Issues of introducing of new personnel technology are discussed, as well as interactions of social scientists and government officials.

Keywords: public service; public administration; social engineering; social technology; management consulting; project management

Antonova V.K. Civil servants’ professionalization specifics in the context of current reforms in Russia (76-82)

Abstract. The article looks at the civil service as an occupation from the neo- Weberian perspective aiming to analyze specifics of the professionalization of the bureaucrats. Based on the results of the semi-structural interviews with Russian civil servants a conclusion was made that as far as civil service as an occupation exists only within the federal and regional government bodies in Russia, this limitation makes it difficult for civil servants to form professional associations to provide professional autonomy, to restrain practices of social closure thus complicating emergence of a positive image of the profession.

Keywords: civil servant; professionalization; ethical norms of an occupation; neo-Weberian approach; occupational closure; occupational autonomy

 

SOCIOLOGY OF INTENATIONAL RELATIONS

Glukhova A.V. Sovereignty versus competitiveness: a challenge for the state (83-92)

Abstract. The state today is challenged by changing traditional understanding and perception of its nature and properties, including sovereignty and competitiveness. In the XXI century, both these features are vital. There are some reasons for it. State loses political entity status, while sovereignty is used as a resource to protect national interests. Moreover, political success is determined by the level of state competitiveness that is, legal capacity of public institutions and high quality of decisions. Low quality of the state undermines its competitiveness and therefore sovereignty.

Keywords: sovereignty; globalization; competitiveness; glocalization; conflict risks; methodological nationalism; cosmopolitan paradigm; inclusive sovereignty 

Dobrokhotov L.N. Social Inequality: Urgent Problem of the New American Society (93-101)

Abstract. The paper offers analyses of social structure and social inequality in USA today. At great length the views of world sociology classics and contemporary scholars are stated. Yet taken into consideration USA specifics as world capitalism classical country and America’s dominant role in world (and American sociological school world significance), opinions by American sociologists on growing and acute social inequality problem in their country are discussed. Maximal attention is paid to newest American publications on the issue. Keeping them in mind neoconservative/ neoliberal monetarist ideology and practice (main reason for current social crisis in the USA) are under fire in the paper. It underlines at the same time that following in Russia a policy that copies the most outdated American experience had refuted both by science and practice leading our country into dead end. Leading American scholars suggest another way out.

Keywords: society; social structure; inequality; classes; working class; middle class; capitalism; liberalism; USA

Ruban L.S. A characterization of the situation in Asia-Pacific region (results of international expert interviews, 2005–2014) (102-109)

Abstract. The article shows situation in Asia-Pacific region and place of the Russian Federation in system of the regional security. Empirical base includes results of international expert polls in an international project “Dialogue partnership as factor of stability and integration”. High quality specialists from 16 states participated in these interviews yielding complex (economic and security) characteristics of the situation in APR considering its overall potential, risks, possible threats of the military conflict here. Optimal routes for cooperation in the region are discussed.

Keywords: Asia-Pacific region; Asian Regional Forum; regional and global security; energy security; cooperation in energy sphere; international cooperation 

 

SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION

Ostrovskaya .. Religious “Jewishness”: biographical narrative in a closed group (110-118)

Abstract. Concept of “religiosity” is in the contemporary professional discourse of the sociology of religion one of the most popular and frequently used. However, applied to the study of this phenomenon is mainly either in quantitative surveys involving a multidimensional measurement model of religiosity, or in polls about religious affiliation. In view of this, the content and structural components of religiosity of different groups do not fall into the focus of researchers’ attention. Inclusion of biographical narratives in the methods’ toolbox enables to identify collective and individual components of religiosity. However, its use in studies of religious groups and actors is accompanied by a number of methodological difficulties, the explanation of which is not always provided in respective manuals. This article offers a detailed analysis of the most complex aspects of the methodology of the biographical narrative: search for respondents, method of conducting such interviews, stages of interviewing. Each stage of explanation is illustrated by examples from the author’s research of the religious Jews of St. Petersburg (2015). The analysis of biographical narrative procedures is done by means of research material about the daily life of Jewish religiosity, specific chronotope of its manifestations and the “we – other” disposition.

Keywords: biographical narrative; religion; snowball method; reference method sampling; religious Jewry

Kirillova A.I. Involvement in religious practices as a factor of migrants’ integration (119-128)

Abstract. The article elucidates influence of involvement in religious practices of migrants from Central Asia in the process of their integration in Russia. We have constructed a typology of migrants according to their level of religious involvement, showing its connection to religious and ethnic identity, impact on the practice of inclusion of migrants in the labor markets and relationship with the host society. Also we show processes of assimilation, integration and socio-psychological adaptation of migrants in the light of their religious activity.

Keywords: involvement in religious practices; ethnic relations; migrants; identity; ethnicity; integration; assimilation; adaptation; Islam

Idiatullov A.K. Interacting Islamic currents in Karachay urban district, late 20th – early 21st century (129-135)

Abstract. The article describes main Islamic currents in Karachay urban district. In June 2013, 8 interviews and 1 group discussion were held. Empirical data formed a basis for scientific research of different types of religiousness of Karachays. The author investigated general tendencies in religious life of Karachay, specifics of interaction of traditional Muslims with representatives of the new Muslim movement. Author comes to a conclusion that current religious situation in the Karachay city district is continuation of the Soviet and pre-revolutionary Islamic tradition. Besides, the author considers that search of new religious identity at Karachays takes place with difficulties. Islam in the region develops under the influence of interacting opposite traditions and innovations.

Keywords: tradition; Muslims; Salafis; Sunnis; Karachay; Islam

 

SOCIOLOGY OF COMMUNICATIONS

Pliushch .N. That has nothing to do with me (A reconstruction of language image of the world) (136-147)

Abstract. An individual defines social reality in the image of one’s own discourse. An image of the world construction is caused by the used instrument (language) that includes theories built in it. Psycho-semantic approach, which allows building semantic space on the base of appraisals of countries’ images, gives opportunity to reproduce features of image of world organization (and applied discourse). As such features categorical structures of constructed semantic space were taken and the logic of countries’ grouping that reflects specifics of the role of own country in the surrounding world. Students from Russia and Ukraine with different linguistic practices were taken as an example, where two types of logic of own country positioning were revealed. In the frame of the logical type the country one seeks to defend its right to independently choose the path of development, despite current world order. In logic, country is trying to join a group of more successful countries, at least for minor roles, compensating it with belonging to the camp of “successful” ones and cultivation of superiority over the countries that have chosen a different path of development. Taking into account a circular causality, when individual subject in the course of socialization learns discourse, then reproduced in social life, it is possible to correct discourse and ways of image of world organization inherent to native speakers of a specific language. It is noted that discourse constructs masking political relations of subjects can substitute political influence.

Keywords: discourse; language; psychosemantics; image of the world; image of a country; self-appraisal; inferiority complex

Titova M.A. Children’s speech (148-153)

Abstract. The study offers an interpretation of “children’s speech” as retold by parents on parental web sites. The realm of internet communication is analyzed as contemporary form of symbolic ritual behavior. In addition to its insights on social consolidation process in turbulent time, the study also serves as a model example of the application of analytic methodologies to research in the realm of virtual interaction. The analysis demonstrates that the pleasure of non-functional communication springs up from down shifting in communication format (from individual level to archaic mass stage) and spreads on intra-family light-hearted discourse and parental web intercourse.

Keywords: solidarity; Internet; network; virtual communication; parent community; family

 

ANNIVERSARY

Babosov E.M. is 85 (154)

 

ACADEMIC EVENTS

Romanovsky N.V. Interdisciplinarity: interaction of natural sciences with social and humanitarian knowledge – 17th A. Khartchev Readings (155-157)

Aleynikov .V., Strebkov .I. Conflict as problem: theory, management techniques, and outlook for education (158-159)

Jarskaja V.., Pashinina .I. Times’ kaleidoscope: new temporalism (159-161)

Omelchenko D.A. Youth and society: in search on new solidarities (161-163)

 

BOOK REVIEWS

Ivanov R.V. Poliushkewitch O.A. Solidarnost’ pokoleniy: monografiya (Intergenerational Solidarity). Irkutsk: ISU publishers, 2014 – reviewed by Ivanov R.V. (164-165)

Lamajaa Ch.K. Mongol’skiy mir: mezhdu Vostokom I Zapadom (Mongolian world: between East and West) ed. by Y.V. Popkov, J. Amartani. Novosibirsk, 2014 – reviewed by Lamazhaa Ch.K. (166-167)

 

IN MEMORIAM

Memory of I.V. Bestuzhev-Lada (168)