Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

SOTSIOLOGICHESKIJ ZHURNAL
(SOCIOLOGICAL JOURNAL)

 2016. Vol. 22. No.1

 

THEORY AND METHODOLOGY

Nikolai S. Rozov “Provincialism”, “Indigenity”, and Factors of Intellectual “Capitalness” in Social Perception (8-25)

Abstract. “Provincial”, “indigenous” and “capital” sciences (according to terms used by M. Sokolov and K. Titaev) are compared with each other in terms of their audibility to the world’s scientific community and their intellectual mobility. The appeal of scientists’ workplaces and living space is revealed as three types of comfort: life sustenance comfort, social comfort and spiritual comfort. The recognition of their scholarship and personal reputation form the foundation for scientists’ social comfort, and they depend on the significance and novelty of their research. Spiritual comfort is defined by a sense of genuine learning, a sense of participating in “true science”. This “authenticity” can be confirmed only by long-term recognition, which brings us back to the theme of “capitalness” as a central proposition in intellectual networks. Thirteen factors of the successful attainment of a “capital” status are marked out according to the case of the Chicago School of Sociology. The opportunity to record and use them in the current situation of social sciences in Russia is revealed as a means of overcoming the long-standing split between “provincial” and “indigenous” sciences.

Keywords: “provincial science”; “aboriginal science”; “capital science”; social cognition; intellectual mobility; the Chicago school of sociology

 

SURVEYS, EXPERIMENTS, CASE STUDIES

Gennadiy L. Voronin, Vladimir Ya. Zakharov, Polina M. Kozyreva “Who lives well in Russia?” 1994–2013 Monitoring survey (26-53)

Abstract. This article analyzes the dynamics of life satisfaction among Russia’s population over the course of the last two decades, as well as its determinants based on OECD methodology and data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of the Higher School of Economics (RLMS–HSE). It shows that inRussia, which during its transformational period went through each phase of the business cycle with high oscillation amplitude, life satisfaction is more closely connected to the main economic indicators than in countries that haven’t experienced similar economic and social shock. The way life satisfaction and its main determinants correlate inRussiais similar in character to what we see in several other countries. Meanwhile, the main values which characterize these connections, as well as their forms, depend on the particular course of movement of the economic cycle in any given country, as well as the previous path (model) of its development.

Keywords: subjective well-being; life satisfaction; determinants and indicators; RLMS–HSE monitoring survey; economic cycle

Valeria A. Ivaniushina, Vera V. Titkova, Daniil A. Alexandrov Adolescent aggression: group norms and social status among peers (54-71)

Abstract. This study analyses the relationship between aggressive behavior of adolescents and their social status among peers. The data was collected in 2013–2014 in four vocational schools of St Petersburg (in total 418 students, mean age 17–18 years old).  For comprehensive study of adolescents environment all second year students were surveyed. It was demonstrated that higher level of aggression is positively related to high social status (popularity) among peers. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) aggression is more prevalent in male groups than in female groups; (2) there is no gender differences in frequency of different forms of bullying (physical, verbal, or both); (3) youth who demonstrate aggressive behavior are more popular among peers; (4) the level of classroom aggressiveness increases popularity of aggressive boys; popularity of aggressive girls does not depend of the level of classroom aggressiveness. Future surveys of “culture of aggression” in adolescent groups are necessary for understanding of universality of our findings and for development of possible preventive methods to deal with teenagers’ aggression.

Keywords: school aggression; bullying; popularity

 

ETHNOSOCIOLOGY

Svetlana V. Ryzhova Trust and ethnic tolerance under conditions of social change (72-94)

Abstract.The purpose of the article is to consider the conceptual approaches to the study of trust, instruments of its study, and empirical research of the level of trust and ethnic tolerance in Moscow. The paper presents the results of sociological research of Muscovites carried out in 2014 by the method of formalized interview. The author studied attitudes of trust and distrust, subjective ground for the trust and distrust which have developed in the Moscow society. Some problems of the empirical study of the level of generalized trust are discussed. The simple 4-point scale was used as a tool for study of trust. The research found that the population of Moscow is strongly polarized — 47.6% tend to trust people in general, and 46.5% — do not trust. The networks of trust in Moscow are formed mainly on the basis of the closest circle of relatives and friends; trust is formed by assessing the reliability of partners. Rules and norms underlying the culture of trust are taken into account but they are inferior to the other grounds of trust. There is the obvious shortage of basic trust. The research indicates that ethnic tolerance and generalized trust are interrelated phenomena. Ethnic tolerance assists to generalized trust. Certain degree of ethnic tolerance, favorable (or just neutral) attitudes towards ethno-cultural diversity of society is necessary for the formation of generalized trust. Modern culture of trust in Moscow is created on the basis of cooperation, friendly relations and good neighborly.

Keywords: trust; grounds for trust and distrust; ethnic tolerance; ethnic tolerance indicators; culture; Moscow

Nataliya S. Mastikova Ethnic tension in Russia and Europe (according to the European Social Survey, 2012) (95-113)

Abstract.: The article is devoted to pre-crisis situation (2014 – 2016) analysis of ethnic relations in Russia and European countries with considering studying ethnic tension by domestic experience. Ethnic tension is considering as a social psychological characteristic reflect the imbalance in social relations, resulting from the escalating conflict between ethnic groups.The empirical foundation of study is the ESS database. Indicators of ethnic tension, such as relations to relocation of immigrants into the country of the respondent, the assessment of changes that bring immigrants are analyzed. Detaching the analogues to those indicators in the ESS allowed to construct an index of ethnic tension and to compare it’s values in the European countries.The countries with the lowest (Scandinavia) and the highest level of ethnic tensions (Cyprus, Russia, Czech Republic, Portugal, Hungary) are revealed. Most ethnic tensions observed in younger and older age groups, as well as in the group of women, and among respondents with low education and low income, living in villages.In the context of the main causes of ethnic tensions (cultural characteristics of ethnic groups interacting), highlighted the factors that consistently influence on ethnic tensions, such as the size of GDP per capita, the proportion of migrants in total population, the number of migrants who arrived in the last 5 years, trust the people, occupation. 

Keywords: ethnic tension; migrants; ethnic group; trust; ESS

 

SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION

Elena M. Kolesnikova Teachers in private and public pre-school education: status and prospects (114-132)

Abstract.. This study was conducted as part of a project aimed at analyzing the social status and future prospects of pre-school teachers in Russia. This professional group is analyzed within the framework of the Neo-Weberian concept. In the next few years Russian pre-school education will see the resignation of a large portion of experienced professionals who have reached retirement age. The main hypothesis was that this generational shift will affect some of the group’s significant parameters, and that the dynamics of the social and professional status of specialists working in private and public sectors will become varied.The study was carried out through March–September 2014 in 3 regions (Moscow, Samara province, Nizhny Novgorod province), taking into account a quota sample based on a certain statistically important criterion (namely — experience in the field of pre-school teaching). 347 questionnaires filled out by public kindergarten teachers were selected for analysis, as well as 93 more questionnaires filled out by private kindergarten teachers (due to a lack of official statistics on private sector staff, we had to use a total survey of pre-school teachers from 20 private kindergartens and educational centers). Additionally, we used the data from a survey we conducted from September 2011 to January 2012 (which covered 12 regions), utilizing a quota sample based on the criterion of experience in pre-school teaching. 597 questionnaires were selected for analysis.This article includes analysis of the following thematic questionnaire sets: evaluating the changes in certain working condition parameters that took place over the last 3 years at the work places where teachers where directly engaged; evaluating certain resources of the group such as their subjective sense of respect for their profession on behalf of the state and society, the level of their professional education, and resources such as elevated authority, as well as evaluating the group’s social security and income.It was established that this professional group is characterized by a rather extensive set of problems — such as weak symbolic capital, underdeveloped collegial solidarity and low income — and their solution requires the combined effort of the entire professional community, with measures including the development of institutions which would promote the representation of opinions and private-public cooperation.A lack of decent state funding and the absence of regulatory activity on behalf of professional associations may lead to the continued deterioration of profession status — a decline in quality of staff, and an increased amount of migrants occupied in this field.

Keywords: Sociology of professions; sociology of education; preschool teachers; preschool education

 

SOCIOLOGICAL TRAINING

Valeriy G. Vinogradskiy “Voices from below”: discursive projections of the peasant worlds (133-153)

Abstract.The author, who has been studying the Russian countryside for years, focuses on presenting two interrelated processes which inevitably occur during sociological practices. The first initial process is expressively summed up in the well-known formula by Andrei Platonov: “Good ideas do not come in comfort, they come as a result of encountering people and events”. These prolonged “encounters” with the world of peasants, while being continuously engulfed in the tranquil music of their humble existence, gives us a chance to come across places and situations where the deep implications of their world start to become apparent. The author cites examples of different communicative stage settings which came forth during field work, while trying to assess their information-discourse capacity. This experience of being present and the degree of involvement in the peasant world can be considered a basic reference point, a magnetic field which forms and coordinates the examined vital discordance. This experience is formalized into a set of distinct ways of being involved in the peasant worlds, and is conveyed mainly in a lively fashion — as in “do what I do”. This article also describes the essence of a second investigative process — studying the discursive formats which are the consequences of peasants’ everyday life practices. The author talks about certain special observation methods, which are sociolinguistic in their disciplinary orientation, and which focus on the study and analysis of Russian peasants’ environments. To be specific, the author justifies the possibilities and methods of constructing discursive projections of everyday peasant life. The article summarizes both the theoretical / methodological research of the author and his sociological field tests in the examined area.

Keywords: sociology of the village; the peasant worlds; everyday life of the village; discourse; discursive formats; evolution of discursive practices

 

REVIEWS, SUMMARIES

Elena N. Danilova [Rev.] Karahcarovsky V.V., Shkaratan O.I., Yastrebov G.A. The Russian labour culture and foreign influence. Moscow: Strana Oz Publ., 2015 (154-162)

 

ACADEMIC LIFE

Natalia N. Sedova VI Socilogical Grushin Conference (163-167)

Liubov Yu. Bronzino The preliminary results of ESA 12th Conference, or about the benefits and harms of scientific conferences (168-186)