Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Bulletin of the Institute of Sociology (Vestnik instituta sotziologii)

2016, No 19

СONTENTS

Khaliy I.A. Presenting This Issue. P. 9-12

Konstantinovskiy David The Formation of Young People’s Orientations in The Sphere of Education . P. 13-27

Abstract This article examines those factors which crucially impact the formation of youths’ intentions when it comes to their educational and professional careers. Special attention is paid to analyzing the dynamics of the prestige of education in our country, the characteristics of its change as a result of various effects having to do with economical, political and other changes. Observed is the increasing importance of education for the country’s development and the current attitudes toward it. Materials from sociological studies are used to show the aspirations of various groups of modern youths when it comes to the educational field. Also demonstrated are the motives for acquiring a profession and education, which high school students cite when explaining their chosen path. With the use of statistical data, shown is the correlation between changes on the labor market, youths’ (families’) attitudes and the development of the educational field during different periods of our country’s development. Illustrated is the role of the labor market when it comes to forming the attitudes and social behavior of young people, as well as (indirectly) the development of the educational field. The signals which are incoming from the labor market impact the attitudes of youths, as well as parents’ plans when it comes to their children’s education; families transfer an inquiry to the educational field, while the latter answers, forming a more or less adequate proposition. Also shown is how youths’ plans for education depend on changes in the educational field itself. While planning their future, young people especially take into account the situation with competition in education (primarily the amount of people being enrolled into universities and graduating from schools), while evaluating their own abilities. This article substantiates the assertion that youths aspiring towards education are one of the most important resources that a country can have, and one of the primary driving forces behind development. Youths’ professional attitudes are becoming ever more important in light of the changes which are occurring in our world. It is society’s duty to examine and perfect young people’s desire for education.

Keywords youth, education, orientations, educational and professional career, prestige of education.

Cherednichenko Galina Village School Graduates: Educational Strategies . P. 28-52

Abstract Government statistical data and materials from sociological studies are used to examine the educational strategies of village youth. Analysis is carried out in a comparative manner – the processes and phenomena which characterize village youths are compared with such attributed to urban youths. The statistical data is analyzed within the dynamics of the period from the 1990’s through the 2010’s. It is revealed that village youths’ educational strategies, compared to those of their urban peers, are shaped under the influence of common factors of living conditions changes, the development of school and professional education systems, shifts in the demographic situation (transition from the abundant generations of the late 1990’s and early 2000’s to the sparse generations of the late 2000’s). After finishing basic schooling most village youths choose to go down the “non-academic” path: they transfer to secondary professional training, while young men and women from cities, for the most part, continue to attend day high school. Those who are currently receiving a complete secondary education in rural areas are much more socially selected relative to the social structure of the village population, when compared to their peers from urban secondary schools relative to the general city population. These village youths are to a much greater extent than before consolidated in their pursuit of higher education. As a result a situation has developed towards the early 2010’s when the majority of rural high school graduates enrolled into universities, so their educational attitudes and their actual choices turned out to be quite similar to the aspirations of youths from cities. Shown is the demographic situation’s influence (during varying chronological periods) on youths’ options at certain stages of choosing an educational path, and also indicated is how they are affected by such a crucial factor as the existing local structure, a network of educational facilities for various levels of general and professional education.

Keywords rural youth, urban youth, educational strategies, graduates from general secondary school, graduates from high school, secondary specialized education, higher education.

Gasparishvili Alexander Tengizovitch Secondary Professional Training Facilities in the Eyes of Graduates: Working Versus Further Education . P. 53-74

Abstract This article analyzes institutions which prepare mid-level specialists – primarily the connection between the socio-demographic characteristics of professional training college graduates and their opinions, their outlook on their chosen specialties, their motives for choosing a profession and their future course of life. This article has been prepared based on materials from a sociological study dedicated to such issues as professional attitudes and plans of those who graduated from Russian professional training colleges; said study was conducted in 2014 by an IS RAS research team lead by D. L. Konstantinovskiy. During the study, graduates would explain what caused them to choose their profession and what influenced their choice, they would also share their plans on what they intend to do after completing their education, they would express their opinion on the quality of the education they received, as well as the level necessary for succeeding in life. Based on the acquired data, the vast majority of professional training college graduates (70%) are preparing to enter the labor market. Those who consider pursuing further education full time right after graduating from professional training college – they are relatively few at 16%. Another 2% intend to completely dedicate their time to family life. Less than half of graduates (45%) are confident that they will find a job by their profession. The majority of those surveyed rely primarily on non-institutional resources while searching for a job. Almost two times less people intend to utilize institutional resources. Less than 10% of graduates consider education received at professional training colleges to be sufficient for succeeding in life. The vast majority (over 70%) consider higher education to be essential. The conducted analysis allows us to make the following conclusion: for most professional training college graduates, the secondary professional training system is an intermediate stage in their planned life paths. After graduating from a professional training college, they usually tend to independently search for a job, while not being sure that they would find a job by their specialty. This has to do not only with issues on the labor market, but also with the training quality of future specialists – 40% of graduates do not deem the knowledge which they receive during their special training to be useful to them. After being on the labor market for a while as mid-level specialists, many of them would enroll into college in order to receive higher education and attempt to build their lives according to their idea of life success.

Keywords students, graduates, education, career and technical education system, labor market, career and technical education system, career guidance, work opportunities, opinion

Kliucharev G.A., Sheregi Franc Edmumdovich, Chursina Anna On the Effectiveness of Continuous Education in High-Tech Industrial Enterprises . P. 75-93

Abstract Continuous education1 in the form of personnel training, advanced training, training in the workplace, informing and consulting, self-education, implementing creative environments for inno-vative creativity, and certain other forms of educational activities are the main means of producing human capital given conditions when high-tech business is emerging and developing. This article considers the following thesis: the idea of “continuous education” should be viewed from different points of view, such as legal, economic. Addressed is the matter of the relationship between education and professional activities. Noted is the fact that employees’ educational behavior is one of the fac- tors of production development. Special attention is paid to such an aspect as continuous education while studying large-scale and average high-tech enterprises. This article analyzes data from a study conducted at high-tech enterprises, involving employees who had passed advanced training courses, those who hadn’t attended the latter, as well as the management of these enterprises’. Considered is the way in which attending such advanced training courses (including corporate ones) influences the job-satisfaction level of employees at high-tech industrial enterprises, as well as the development of those qualities which are necessary for them to perform their duties. Examined was the degree in which attending advanced training courses affected a laborer’s salary (both actual and desired). Separately studied were the opinions of the executives at such companies, opinions concerning those qualities which are necessary to perform management functions. The following observation was made: there exist four groups of competences necessary for successful participation in innovative work. Revealed is the fact that additional education determines the development of those industrial enterprises with a high concentration of intellectuals, by means of forming employees’ technological competences. The following conclusion is made: the criterion used to assess effectiveness of training in the workplace – namely, salary increases for studying employees – while it may be commonplace in worldwide practice, however, it is not very reliable on account of “grey salary” practices. Described are the peculiarities when it comes to employers choosing between institutional or corporate additional education. Considered are three levels for analyzing the effectiveness of investing into additional professional training.

Keywords Continuing education, science intensive industries, reproduction of scientific and engineering personnel, efficiency of training and retraining

Kozyreva P.M., Smirnov A.I. Social Security for Groups of Russians with Average Income. P. 94-120

Abstract This article analyzes issues regarding social security for Russians with average income, and their ability to stand up to the threats and dangers of a society in crisis. The analysis is based on data from the “Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE (RLMS-HSE)”. The analysis revealed that the deteriorating financial status of the Russian people, which occurred after the country fell into a series of economic crisis, has lead to the high-income segment serious thinning out, together with a significant expansion of groups with average income. Meanwhile each group, regardless of financial status, demonstrated a considerable misalignment when it comes to the objective and subjective financial position of those surveyed. Worsening conditions, as well a decrease in life-quality for segments of the population with average income, was indicated by a growing dissatisfaction among the people with their material status and with life in general, them increasingly becoming concerned with employment issues and fearing unemployment, as well as their growing anxiety and ever worsening assessments of their life prospects. The main reasons for decreasing social security of those segments of the population with average income were found to be a decline in real income, decreasing availability of various monetary and non-monetary sources of income, as well as less access to social benefits and social services. Employers more frequently resorting to unconventional forms of behavior on the labor market – which help businesses to overcome the crisis with minimal losses and to limit the increase of unemployment (administrative leaves, working on a shortened schedule, salary delays, “hidden” remuneration etc.) – has lead to significantly more violations of the rights of laborers with low or average income. The amount of people among them who are working without officially registering their labor relations has increased. However, despite the development of these and many other negative tendencies, the situation when it comes to the social security of those groups with average income does not seem to be catastrophic.

Keywords income, social security, security threats, living standards, social health, social welfare, social benefits and guarantees, economic crisis.

 

 

Butueva Zinaida Arsentevna Social Well-Being of Elderly People in the Republic of Buriatiya: Regional Aspect. P. 121-135

 

Abstract This article examines the main approaches and factors of the social health of elderly people within the regional aspect. The following conclusion is made: social health as a form of emotional- value consciousness emerges as the result of people subjectively experiencing their specific condition, and it changes under the influence of a person’s internal structure and the surrounding social environment. Analyzed is the structure of those factors which affect social health, with the former including subjective and objective components. The subjective characteristics of elderly people’s social health include the following: personal features, values, emotional state in general, confidence in their future. Objective characteristics focus on such components as: age, education, health, material and marital status. Changes in social health are affected by the current socio- economic and ethno-political situation in the country and on its outskirts. That’s why it is essential to examine the social health of elderly people within a regional aspect. The Republic of Buriatiya, being a multi-ethnic region, is characterized by multiple religions, a heterogenic socio-economic environment, being situated on the border, and somepeculiar cultural traditions. A harsh climate, low population density and a large distance from Russia’s political and cultural centers define the republic as a region which is isolated from the country’s mainstream socio-cultural environment. These peculiarities form a unique environment, which impacts the population’s social health. Based on the research conducted, a conclusion is drawn that the age groups of elderly people are dissimilar, which is demonstrated by the way they evaluate their life satisfaction, material status, values, and confidence in the future. The following factors seriously impact social health: age, education, marital status. The following values are considered to be important among elderly people (in descending order): home, family, health, material well-being, confidence in the future, feeling of security. These components influence the level and degree of elderly people’s involvement in institutional relations, and they are directly connected to social health.

Keywords aging of the population, older people, social well-being factors, methods of measurement, subjective life satisfaction, the region, the Republic of Buriatiya

Kiseliov Igor Yurievitch, Smirnova Anna Gennadievna P. 136-154

 

 

Latova N.V.  P. 155-179