2015 No 7 (373)
XVIII SOCIOLOGÑIAL WORLD CONGRESS
ÀBRAHAM Ì. (ISA President, 2014–2018) Sociology’s role in making of just society (3-5)
BURAWOY M. (ISA President 2010–2014) Sociology: facing the inequalities (5-14)
ROMANOVSKIY N.V. (“Sociological studies” journal, Russian academy of sciences, Moscow, Russia) Yokohama: results and lessons (15-24)
Summary. On the basis of 2014 18th ISA congress materials, trends of contemporary theoretical sociology evolution are identified. A review is offered of the state of sociology in the countries that feature most dynamic development, and a forecast of theoretical sociology evolution is specified. Also, some issues of Russian sociology are discussed including its interaction with adjacent disciplines and sociologists from other countries.
Key words: ISA world congress, 2014 ● ñîntemporary sociology ● theoretical sociology ● postcolonial sociology ● sociology in Russia
VDOVICHENKO L.N. (Russian state University of humanities, Moscow, Russia) Inequalities in the world as challenge to global sociology (25-29)
Summary. Inequalities in the world are a dominant factor affecting global processes, international relations, and social affairs inside all countires. The paper discusses sociologists’ approaches to studying inequalities in various spheres. The discussion is built on documents of the 18th ISA world congress, 2014, Yokohama, Japan
Key words: world of inequalities ● sociological research of inequalities ● challenges to global sociology ● conflicts ● migrations
SÎCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
SMOLIN Î.N. (First deputy chair, Committee for Education, Russian Federation State Duma, Moscow, Russia) Higher education: struggling for quality or encroaching on human potential? (part 2) (30-37)
Summary. A higher quality of education is impossible without its considerably greater financing and social guaranties. At the same time, following measures are proposed: 1) de-bureaucratization – that is, less indices for licencing, accreditation and controls of education institutions functioning; reduction of reporting indices; 2) democratization of education administering – real electivity of rectors, heads of departments, institutes and chairs, evaluation of teachers performance quality with students opinions’ taken into consideration; 3) USE (unitary state examination) reform towards greater numbers of creative assigments; 4) elaboration of special qualimetric characteristics to assess quality of education.
Key words: higher education • University • students • teachers • bureaucratization • quality of education • monitoring • Universities effectiveness • unitary state examination (USE)
ÎSIPOV À.Ì. (Yaroslav the Wise Novgorod State University, Novgorod, Russia); ÌÀÒVEEVA N.À. (Altai State pedagigic University, Barnaul, Russia) Institutional barriers and education accessibility mechanisms: conception and regional dynamics (37-48)
Summary. The article is devoted to the problem of educational inequality reproduction. The authors refer to domestic and foreign sociological studies of education research developing their own concept of major mechanisms that provide reproduction of inequality through public education, as well as institutional barriers hampering access to quality education. Basing on empirical research from 2000–2013, they reveal regional trends in the reproduction of educational inequality and institutional barriers in the area of general upper secondary education. Also strategies are proposed for state educational policy to eliminate educational inequality through social interactions.
Key words: educational inequality ● access to education ● quality of education ● institutional barriers ● state educational policy
ÊUZ’MINA Yu.V., POPOV D.S. (both – Institute of education, Scientific Research University, Higher school of economics, Moscow, Russia) Adults’ literacy as mechanism for their societal inclusion (48-57)
Summary. In this paper we discuss interrelation between functional literacy of adults and their participation in contemporary society, and involvement in social life. The research is based on the results of PIAAC – Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competences. It was proposed earlier that people with lower level of literacy are in fact excluded from modern society and appear to be in so called “risk group” without job, but with broken health and vague life prospects. We did not find full confirmation for this hypothesis in Russia and at the same time we argue that position of highly literate adults in Russia seems to be much worse compared to similar people of OECD countries. We suggest hypothesis for further research and formulate recommendations for progress of adult education in Russia.
Key words: PIAAC ● competences ● literacy ● adult education ● educational policy
ÌÅÒHÎDOLOGY AND ÌÅÒHODS OF SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES
DOLGAEVA E.I., KRYLOVA V.V. (both – N. P. Ogarev Mordovia State University, Saransk, Russia) Popular complaints against authorities: what remains beyond quantitative measurement (58-64)
Summary. The article criticises quantitative methods’ in investigating population’s complaints against authorities, analyzes results of qualitative interviews conducted by the authors, and proposes to increase reliability of quantitative data. On the basis of own practice and that of leading sociological centers’ authors analyze some methodological errors arising in appliance of certain sociological questions and measurement scales. It is proved that quantitative studies in Russia predictably demonstrate a high acuteness and wide range of socio-economic complaints; against this background other problems of relations between authorities and society pale into insignificance. Presenting results of their research, authors focus on the issues which are not directly related to the socio-economic situation in the country. These problems include: lack of Russian development program which is clear to the entire society; shortage of direct dialogue between leaders, politicians, deputies and population; complaints against moral and professional standing of authorities. Accordingly, authors suggest a way to increase credibility of public opinion polls on political topics – to integrate the qualitative methods with the quantitative ones. Qualitative surveys contribute to a more liberal expression of different points of view, increase sincerity of responses, help to develop quantitative tools that would adequately reflect the whole spectrum of opinions. The authors emphasize necessity to take into account problems identified in the surveys on effectiveness of state authorities and local self-government. This research shows that socio-economic complaints are insufficient for explaining population’s attitude to authorities of a country, region or municipality.
Key words: interaction • power • qualitative research • quantitative research • morality • public opinion • society • complaints • professionalism
GOLOVASHINA Î.V. (G.R. Derzhavin Tambov State University, Tambov, Russia) Civil identity of a Russian: associative experiment using visual intermediaries (64-71)
Summary. Results of a study are presented related to civil identity of contemporary young Russians using visual intermediaries. The study permitted to state presence of a basis for making civil identity in the consciousness of the first post-soviet generation.
Key words: associative experiment • visual resources • social memory • civil identity
TROFIMOVA I.N. (Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia) Consolidation of state powers and society in Russia: specifics of current international and domestic political context (72-80)
Summary. On the basis of a representative sociological survey the problem of relations between powers and society in contemporary Russia is analyzed. It is shown that aggravated international relations around 2014 “Ukrainian crisis” became a most important factor for consolidating powers and society. Special attention is paid to the analysis of Russians’ attitude to the latest political events, to major public institutions and activities of the President V. Putin. Two events became true symbols of 2014: reunification of Crimea with Russia and Sochi XXII Olympic Winter Games. Different in their contents, both events became associated in the public mind with the beginning of Russia’s resurgence as a world power. It is shown also that attitude of Russians to powers is a complex and contradictory set of individual components which do not form an interconnected and sufficiently broad social and political space. The social strata and groups with a positive or a negative attitude to the state power and authorities are very separated because of deep economic, territorial, social, cultural, generational and other differences. A deep socio-economic inequality in society is clearly manifested in attitudes of Russians to state powers. Absence of horizontal civil cohesion and uncertainty regarding foreign and domestic situation cause consolidation of Russian society around its political leader Vladimir Putin. Positive attitude to the president ensures stability of the existing socio-political regime, which, however, in the long term perspective does not preclude emergence of social and political conflicts that in the absence of broader civil consolidation can have irreversible consequences. In general, a set of indicators characterizing relationship between society and authorities demonstrate Russians’ support for external and internal policies of the state powers, although this support is not monolithic.
Key words: Russian Federation • power • state • society • foreign policy • domestic policy • public institutions • sociopolitical relations • consolidation Contents. Summaries
ÌÀYÊÎVÀ E.Yu., SIMONOVA E.V. (both – Tver State technical University, Tver, Russia) Potential of popular self-government in Russia’s regions (the case of Tver) (80-88)
Summary. The article analyses the potential of self-government among Russia’s population that involves representations, cognitive opinions and behavioural models connected to citizens’ socio-political activity and their participation in local self-government. Empirical indicators of this potential are suggested. They are cognitive opinions of inhabitants of local self-government institute and system of legislative norms, considerable degree of trust of the population to local government, civil activity of the population, readiness of citizens to take part in solving questions of local import. Data for Tver are produced in empirical sociological survey in 2009–2013 using questionnaires. Groups of respondents with differing self-government potential are found. Reference groups of proactive and active citizens are ascertained. These groups are regarded as social base for developing local self-government.
Key words: local self-government • potential of self-government • sociological monitoring • trust • civil participation
SOCIOLOGY OF CULTURE
ÒÀNGALYCHEVA R.Ê. (St.-Petersburg State University, St.-Petersburg, Russia) Intercultural communication and acculturation (review of international studies) (89-98)
Summary. Under discussion is importance of intercultural communication and acculturation in contemporary society. Immigrants and temporary migrants are analysed as key objects of intercultural communication and acculturation. Principally, attention is paid to temporary migrants (visitors) – international tourists, students, participating in the programs of international exchange, to foreign labor, employees in enterprises working abroad (labor migrants). Analysed are also results of designing research project on acculturation in contemporary society by G. Berry, who proposed a design of this study – on group and indevidual levels. On the first level goals, duration and stability of contacts, as well as economic, political, demographic and cultural shifts in both groups are to be ascertained. The second level relates to the depth of contacts and involvement of humans in it, changes in one’s practical everyday behavior. In conclusion, ideas of designing research of intercultural communication and acculturation are generalilzed.
Key words: intercultural communication • acculturation • pluralistic society • reserarch design • immigrants • temporary migrants
GORBATOV D.A., BOL’SHAKOV S.N. (both – St.-Petersburg State University, St.-Petersburg, Russia) Rumors in international sociology and social psychology: basic theoretical approaches (98-107)
Summary. The paper discusses main stages of evolution and contemporary state of rumor problematic in international academic tradition. Particularly, attention is paid to classification, current approaches to factors of rumors spread and trends in changing contents of information in social environment. Some prospects for further studies of rumor phenomenon are defined. Thus, it appears feasible to look into specifics of dialogical interaction of persons spreading unconfirmed information in order to better understand its nature.
Key-words: rumors • kinds of rumors • factors for rumor spread • trends in chaning rumor contents
BOBYLEVA N.I. (Northern Arctic Federal University, Archangelsk, Russia); SHOVINA Å.N. (Murmansk State humanitarian University, Murmansk, Russia) Social worker in recent Russian anecdotes (107-116)
Summary. In the article anecdote about social work has been analyzed as a specific form of popular views about specifics of this profession. On the basis of content-analysis main subject lines, key actors, types of the relations between them are reviewed. It is discussed how main personal and professional problems of social workers are reflected in public consciousness; what phenomena in the process of the professional social work have become objects for anecdotes. Attempt is made to design an image of typical social worker; types of perception and assessment of social work (critical, neutral and positive) are revealed.
Keys words: social work • social worker • client of social work • professional humor • anecdote
SOCIOLOGY OF MASS COMMUNICATIONS
ADAMYANTS T. (Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia) Sociomental groups in social cognition (117-128)
Summary. New possibilities to study social processes that appear in the differentiation of respondents on the sociomental groups are covered in the article. This differentiation is based on cleavages in understanding intentionality (semantic dominants) holistic, completed communicative acts.
Key words: understanding • sociomental groups • communication skills • intention • meaning • semio-sociopsychology
VANKE A.V. (State Academic University for Humanities, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia); KULAEV M.A. (St.-Petersburg State University, St.-Petersburg, Russia) Workers in Russian TV-channels and print media discourse (126-132)
Summary. Working-class discourse of news at Russian TV channels is analyzed in the paper. Authors conclude that central TV channels transmit hegemonic discourse where the element of “worker” is attached to “stability” and 176 Ñîöèîëîãè÷åñêèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ¹ 7, 2015 “order”, while workers demonstrate conservatism and indifference towards politics. They become active when social order is threatened. They are represented “positively” in the context of shortage of qualified specialists in blue-collar positions.
Key words: hegemony discourse • discourse analysis • workers • news • television • Russia
ÌARTYNOV Ì.Yu. (Surgut State University, Surgut, Russia) Ìodernization and revolution (133-139)
Summary. The article considers two approaches presented in discussion in “Sociological Studies” journal of the role of 1917 Russian Revolution in the country’s modernization. Despite all the differences in these approaches – Marxist theory, reflecting the views on the 1917 October Revolution as a beginning of fundamental changes, and current liberal-conservative concept considering, on the contrary, that the revolution interrupted Russia’s modernization – they are united by the desire to rely on empirical material of historical sociology. And this is main positive result of the discussion. Author offers option – explaining 1917 Russian Revolution as a natural outcome of specific version of “elite” type modernization launched by the reform of 1861.
NÅFÅDÎV S.À. (Urals Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia) “Youth Bulge” and the first Russian revolution (140-147)
Summary. Causes of mass turmoils, uprisings and revolutions have often been linked to “youth bulge” effect – that is, a considerable rise in the share of youth in adult population. In case of 1905 Russian revolution issue of “youth bulge” and its role remains disputable. Using 1897 census data and current demographic statistics, author of the paper demonstrates that “youth bulge” did exist in Russia. Practical effects of a considerable increase of youth cohort are analyzed. One of them was exodus of youth in the cities and an increase of proletarian layer in population, the second being increasing numbers of students and active student movement.
Key words: causes of revolutions ● Russian 1905 revolution ● “youth bulge” ● seasonal work migration ● student movement
ÎBRAZTSOV I.V. (Moscow state linguistic University, Moscow, Russia) “Stirring up the village war has linked it to the world” (World War I centenary) (148-152)
Summary. Memories of the WWI got largely in the shadows of later revolutionary events. Initially, the war had been taken in the wide public circles as a patriotic one. Later the patriotic moods stirred up by the war weakened and the moods in society changed. Negative role had been played by defeats in 1915, by the fall of Emperor’s and its court prestige, deteriorating provisions of the army and Russia’s cities, by growing anarchy, looser discipline of the troops under impact of ‘defeatist’ propaganda by radical socialist parties. However, out of scholarly focus remain cardinal shifts in peasants’ way of life caused by war and asking for scholarly scrutiny. The paper presents and analyses data of a sociological study ‘War and Kostroma village’ in winter 1914–1915.
Key words: memory • WWI • peasantry of Russia • history of sociological surveys
DIUBIUK E.F., ZAKHAROV À.V. War and Kostroma village (152-161)
The 6th B. Grushin readings in MGU
PLATONOVA À.P. (Russian Academy of National Economy and State Service, office of Russian Federartion President) Children and society: social reality and innovations (162-163)
GABDRAKHMANOVA G.F., MAKAROVA G.I. (both – Sh. Mardjani Institute of history, Republik of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Kazan, Russia) Practices of research and regulation of ethno-social processes in the regions of Russia (163-165)
REFLECTING ON A NEW BOOK
ÀLÅYNIÊÎV À.V. (St.-Petersburg State University, St.-Petersburg, Russia) Conflict and structures of social movements (on O.N. Yanitskiy’s book “Sotsialnyie dvizhenia: teoriya, praktika, perspectiva” (Social movements: theory, practice, prospects). Ì., 2013) (166-172)
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