2016 ¹ 1 (381).
Russians’ Life World
ÒOSHCHENKO Zh.Ò. (Russian State University for Humanities; “Sociological Studies” journal; Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)
Life world and its meanings (6-17)
Abstract. The paper reveals essence and contents of the life world notion in terms of sociology of life. Life world is analyzed as a combination of core meanings of life, taking into account the underlying fundamentals of human existence. Data of the national survey in 2014 and the all-Union research of public consciousness in the late 1980s permitted to explore trends in the development of the life world, its meanings, defining the major life goals that are of highest value to humans. Its main meanings are characterized especially in the activities of the contemporary Russians as economic, social, political and spiritually-cultural persons. On this basis the meanings of sustainable value orientations, ideological principles that people are guided by and which they exercise in their relationships with society and the state are analyzed. It is shown that in reality there are diverse life worlds, filled with different semantic content.
Keywords: sociology of life; life-world; meaning of life; life; public awareness; behavior; activities; life practices; social environment
Vorobieva I.V. (Russian State University for Humanities, Moscow, Russia)
Contradictions and paradoxes of political orientations in the life-world structure of Russians (17-26)
Abstract. The article analyzes political orientations of Russian population. The author reveals basic settings and paradoxes of consciousness of Russians about what is happening in the country in public processes, in voting preferences, and political identification. Attitudes of the population towards major political institutions are discussed towards political involvement and activity of Russians. It is concluded that political and social activity of Russians has shifted from federal to local level, towards “close range”. Protection of their private rights is transformed into a concern for common good. One civil/uncivil action turns into another, including the political.
Keywords: life-world; political orientation; political attitudes; political participation; political activity
Kuchenkova A.V. (Russian State University for Humanities, Moscow, Russia)
Interpersonal trust in Russian society (26-36)
Abstract. The article examines the level and specificities of interpersonal trust in Russian society. This kind of trust is defined as the belief that others will not deliberately or knowingly do us harm, if they can avoid it, and will look after our interests, if this is possible. Main focus is on the key types of interpersonal trust: particularized (to the closest circle of relatives, friends, and colleagues) and generalized (impersonal trust between strangers). High level of particularized trust and dominating focus on family and friends are found out and explained by importance of intimate relationships, but also by shared experience of adaptation to new conditions and requirements of economic situation in 1990-s. The consideration of socio-demographic factors of particularized trust shows that the more resources individual has (income, education, and habitation in megalopolis), the higher is his/her level of trust to friends and colleagues. At the same time generalized trust is considerably less widespread indicating disappointment and presence of negative expectations towards fellow citizens. Some tendencies of society’s development (increasing urbanization, amount of civil marriages, prevalence of high level of education) do not contribute to culture of trust. Moreover generalized trust depends on public mood. Positive and neutral evaluation of current and future situation in society as well as satisfaction with personal status improves generalized trust. Negative emotions concerning socio-economic and political conditions on the contrast lead to the decrease of trust. This means that adapting to the current situation in society Russians feel more confident. In order to support this tendency there need to be conditions on macro level (stable development, observance of human rights, effective functioning of political institutions) and micro level (spread of trust as a norm of behavior).
Keywords: interpersonal trust; generalized trust; Russian society
Methodology and Methods of Sociological Research
Myagkov A.Yu. (Ivanovo State Power University, Ivanovo, Russia)
Unmatched count technique: experience of experimental testing (37-48)
Abstract. The article is devoted to the experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of unmatched count technique (UCT) often used in research practice to obtain more valid answers of respondents to sensitive questions but which didn’t gain systematic application in Russian sociology. The description of the general procedure and the basic principles of UCT is given, the results of some validation studies conducted in the western science in recent years are stated. Data of a methodological experiment undertaken by the author in 2011 in Ivanovo are analyzed. Experiment was organized on the principle of three-section splitballot (N=100+100+100) followed by procedures of competitive validation. Surveys were conducted by telephone interview in traditional and experimental (UCT) forms. Respondents were selected from electronic database of telephone subscribers of the city. Evaluation of the effectiveness of UCT produced by a comparative analysis of respondents’ self-reports on the questions about the deviant behavior (alcohol abuse, bribes, adultery, etc.) that have been included explicitly in conventional telephone interview and in the interview using indirect method of the unmatched count technique. Empirical evidence suggesting the obvious superiority of the tested techniques over the traditional form of telephone interviews on a range of indicators are provided. At UCT respondents more likely to report their involvement in social disapproved and illegal behaviors, exhibited greater confidence in anonymity of the survey, rarely felt a sense of awkwardness and embarrassment, answering stigmatized questions, felt sensitivity of the issues discussed. The study shows that alternative strategy of telephone interviewing is trusted more by women, and older age cohorts, while men, young and middle-aged people are less sensitive to the conditions of anonymity and survey method. The experimental results also indicate existence of a specific male and female tabooed issues in surveys. In conclusion it is stated that the unmatched count technique is a very promising tool to improve validity of respondents’ answers in a telephone interview.
Keywords: unmatched count technique (UCT); sensitive questions; socially unapproved behavior; subjective anonymity; sincerity of the respondents
Volkov V.V. (European University at St.-Petersburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia); Skougarevskiy D.A. (European University at St. Petersburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia); Titaev K.D. (European University at St.-Petersburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland)
Problems and prospects for studies based on Big Data (the case of sociology of law) (48-58)
Abstract. This study offers a cursory account of the so-called Big Data revolution in social science, in particular in sociology. Borrowing the definition of Big Data from Kitchin , we set out to examine the challenges sociology is facing with the advent of rich data sets comprising the universe of observations. First, we posit that sociology can and should benefit from this opportunity and not relegate the analysis of big data sets to computer science. Second, we ask how sociology should transform to embrace big data? We argue that, apart from the obvious methodological challenges, scholars of big data should understand that most frequently this information is a by-product of bureaucratic organizations that create it as a means of internal control. Therefore, this data may suffer from problems at birth. Finally, we look at the adjacent field of economics that faced similar challenges in the 1990s with the rise and demise of growth regressions in empirical economics. We show how the field had to restructure itself, adopting empirical rigour to tackle the crisis it underwent with the introduction of rich country-level data. We conclude by suggesting that big data may be used to extend existing empirical studies with richer background information.
Keywords: quantitative methods; methodology of the sociological research; Big Data; sociology of law
Rubtsova M.V. (St.-Petersburg State University, St.-Petersburg, Russia); Vasilieva E.A. (Academy of Science, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Yakutsk, Russia)
Conceptualization and operationalization of notion “trust” for applied sociological research (58-65)
Abstract. Sociology poses the problem of quantitative interpretation of qualitative research. The article deals with institutional and lexical context method based on corpus linguistics considered as one of the solution tools. Based on “Grounded theory” methodology (Strauss A., Corbin J.) and partly conceptual analysis (Sartory G., Goertz G.), we propose to start the definition of the concept with quantitative research. The authors identified useful areas of corpus linguistics in analysis of social management phenomenon and distinguish between methods of corpus linguistics and sociological content analysis: direct appeal to everyday use of the language increases objectivity of the research; a corpus provides large representative data; possibility of diachronic and synchronic comparative studies; the method itself is not time consuming and expensive. We chose the concept “trust” to demonstrate the cooperation possibilities between corpus linguistics and sociological research methodology. The data for the study comes from Russian National Corpus (Russian). As a result of research we conclude that concept “trust” is used in the context of political institution and that the personal features are less important than formal status. Moreover, we have found new contexts, for example, a “telephone of trust” (telephone hotline), which is used to report crimes.
Keywords: trust; sociological operationalization; conceptualization; institutionally-lexical context; corpus linguistics
Sociology of Culture
Êîzyråvà P.Ì. (Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research University “Higher school of Economics”, Moscow, Russia); NIZAMOVA À.E. (Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research University “Higher school of Economics”, Moscow, Russia); SMIRNÎV À.I. (Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)
Happiness and its determinants (Pt. 2) (66-76)
Abstract. The papers looks into specifics of Russians’ contemporary ideas of happiness, of eventual ways to achieve it, socio-psychological aspects of building a happy life. Main attention is paid to clarifying weight of factors influencing shaping and keeping the state of happiness. This seconintd part demonstrates Russian specifics of such happiness sources as work, leisure and intderrelations. A basic obstacle preventing people to retain feeling life happy, is, so authors, steady narrowing of communication circle and loneliness. On the other hand, a positive impact on shaping and retaining the state of happiness was found to be lower enmity, weaker intolerance in society and growing interpersonal trust.
Keywords: wellbeing; trust; communications; family; one’s social feeling; happiness; life satisfaction
Sushchiy S.Ya. (Southern Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Postov-on-Don, Russia)
Art community: trends of post-Soviet period (the case of Rosotv region) (77-85)
Abstract. In the article, based on the materials of the Rostov region, main quantitative, spatial, gender and age characteristics are discussed of a Russian regional artistic community; the structure of creative specialties, main trends of development in post-Soviet period; features of formation of the art market of the Russian province. It is established that the Russian reforms of the late XX century have not stopped quantitative growth of the regional art community. Abolition of material privileges for members of the Union of artists have not reduced the number of those willing to join it. Preserved in the post-Soviet period is also structure of the creative specialties of the regional figures of art – the most common remains easel painting and graphics. In regional professional community nowadays more evident is becoming self-enclosure process. It is almost entirely formed from the natives of the Rostov region, who have been education in local education establishments. Among other changes reduction of the gender imbalance is stated. Share of women already exceeds the share of men among artists of the young generation. Emergence in the region of art galleries did not change material condition for the majority of professional artists. They, as before, are unable to earn enough and have to work outside the sphere of art.
Keywords: Russian region; cultural dynamics; fiction-governmental community; art market; creative specialization
Kiseleva L.S. (Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, Tyumen, Russia); Strielkowski W. (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
Perception of happiness by Russians (86-91)
Abstract. The article presents results of a study focused on subjective judgment by the Russians of life satisfaction level. Social demographic characteristic of the respondents, their state of health, level of their emotional prosperity were analyzed as factors determining the satisfaction level. Special attention was paid to specific character of understanding the category of “happiness” in various age group of the population and correlation of happiness judgments to the level of prosperity felt by people. The study permits to rank factors (health, stable job, legal security, friendly relations, etc.), influencing the respondents’ life satisfaction. Results of the study show that vast majority of respondents in all age categories confidently state that they are happy. The lowest values of life satisfaction are typical for the 26–35-year age group. There was a situation when respondents were not satisfied with their lives but at the same time considering themselves happy. A majority of the questioned determine happiness as presence of sense in life. Among the priority factors conditioning life satisfaction the first place belongs to health, the second – to the family, the third – to the material prosperity. People who felt their state of health to be excellent and good, are more satisfied with their life and are happy. In many cases respondents blame themselves for non-satisfactory state of health. Concerning factors of negative impact on health a majority of choices belongs to the “way of life” and “ecology”. The elderly people in Russia appear less happy and satisfied with their lives, than the elderly abroad, demonstrating a non-satisfactory level of social security, material prosperity, and healthcare services for the people in the retirement age. Women are happier than men.
Keywords: life satisfaction; happiness; health, subjective judgment; prosperity
Avksent’ev V.A., Gritsenko G.D. (Southern Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russia)
Ethnopolitical situation in North Caucasus: experts’ evaluation (92-99)
Abstract. The paper is devoted to analysis of the dynamics of ethno-political process in the North Caucasus. Empirical basis of the study are a series of expert interviews carried out in 2014. The results are compared to those of 2006 similar study. The research of 2006 was used as starting point to elaborate regional conflict scenarios. The first scenario was “temperately negative” and lasted up to 2008. In 2008-2009 there was a definite shift towards a completely negative scenario, and according to our previous estimates it should have lasted up to 2014 or further. Regional situation in 2014 changed to the better, and it is argued that the greatest contribution to stabilization of the region was made by security forces. At the same time economic, social and cultural conditions changed too little despite considerable administrative efforts and financial injections. Events in the North Caucasus disappeared from the headlines after Ukrainian crisis, but that does not mean that there has been significant improvement of the situation in the region. It is argued that moderate changes to the better should be assessed cautiously as returning from completely negative to temperately negative scenario. 2014 survey revealed that all the factors that caused aggravation of the situation in 2008–2009 still influence regional processes and thus moderately positive tendencies are labile and reversible. Among those factors corruption, economic conditions and religious radicalization are mentioned as most important. The new factor seen by experts is geopolitical situation. Experts regard deterioration of the relations in ethno-political and religious spheres as probable in the nearest future.
Keywords: North Caucasus; expert assessment; dynamics of ethno-political crisis; conflict scenario; ethno-political and religious spheres
Shabaev Yu.P. (Êîmi Academic Center, Urals Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences); Goncharov I.À. Syktyvkar State University – both Syktyvkar, Russia); Sàdîkhin À.P. (Russian Academy of National Economy and State Service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia)
Life strategies of Russia’s Germans (100-107)
Abstract. The article summarizes results of a survey “Life strategies of 18–35 year old ethnic Germans residing in Russia based on their social and ethnic self-identification”. Survey was held in multi-national regions of Russia with a complex ethnic composition, sizable territory and rather large area populated by the target ethnic group in a decentralized manner. Some social volunteers from Germany took part in the research activities. The survey involved analysis of migration map of young Germans living in Russia, whether they intent to emigrate from Russia and how their multi-angle ethnic identity was formed. On top, the research addresses the topic of the social status of German people moving from Russia to Germany, adaptation problems they experience and manners of getting employed. Authors use various qualitative and quantitative methods to study job strategies and career aspirations of young Germans born in Russia. Sociological interview is the main method to understand and classify national and ethnic identities of the young Germans arriving from Russia as well as to identify the role of ethnic background in the development of their cultural framework and linguistic skills.
Keywords: migratory moods; civic identity; ethnic identity; cultural homogeneity; multiple identity; linguistic competence
SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
Sheregi F.E. (National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow, Russia)
Teachers of the general education institutions: labor or obligation (108-116)
Abstract. The article is dedicated to the topical issue for the general education institutions – rate setting of teachers’ labor. Is physical and psychological fatigue of teachers mainly caused by the inadequacy of labor rate setting? This hypothesis was tested. The results of two-week time-study (April 2015) of the structure of labor time and questionning of teachers proved that labor rate settings do not predetermine physical and psychological fatigue. Any labor rate setting can be distorted by incompetent labor management of general educational institution. Overseeing by local governing bodies in the field of education and labor unions regarding quantity (formal) data of labor rate setting is obviously ineffective. Teachers` workweek should contain 18 hours, but it exceeds 30 hours instead, assuming that physical and psychological fatigue starts from the fourth lesson.
Keywords: teacher`s labor; labor rate setting; physical fatigue; psychological fatigue
Îsipov À.Ì., Ivanova V.À. (both – Yaroslav the Wise Novgorod State University, Novgorod, Russia)
Institutional functions as a ‘threshold’ issue of contemporary sociology of education (117-124)
Abstract. The paper is devoted to methodological aspects of the study of institutional functions of education as one of the basic theoretical constructs of contemporary sociology of education. The authors argue that the elaboration into the function problem also provides a direction for social-practical outputs of this branch of sociology and its better theoretical development.
Keywords: education as institution; function; criteria of defining institutional functions
Valitova Z.K. (E.A. Buketov Karaganda State University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan); Yessimova A.B. (South Kazakhstan State Pedagogical Institute, Shymkent, Kazakhstan); Karipbayev B.I. (E.A. Buketov Karaganda State University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan); Injigolyan A.A. (E.A. Buketov Karaganda State University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan); Kosherbaev D.B. (E.A. Buketov Karaganda State University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan)
Hierarchy of professions in representations of Kazakhstani schoolchildren (125-131)
Abstract. This paper, based on the results of the survey “Educational strategies of Kazakhstani youth in the context of formation of the intellectual potential of the country and their correspondence to the dynamization of labor market”, aims to analyze representations of Kazakhstani schoolchildren of professions ranking according to criteria of public utility, prestige and profitability. The research data shows the dynamization of notions of hierarchy of professions and the dominance of utilitarian criteria in assessing profitability among schoolchildren.
Keywords: hierarchy; schoolchildren; public utility; prestige; profitability; professions
History of Sociology
Bagramov E.À. (Moscow City Pedagogic Universtity, Moscow, Russia)
Some touches to characteristic of the socio-political views of Pitirim Sorokin (132-141)
Abstract. Basing on analysis of P. Sorokin works, his presentations at scientific congresses and little-known interviews, as well as information obtained during personal meetings and conversations with scientist at the 5th ISA World Congress of sociology, the author shows evolution of Sorokin’s views on revolution, reveals his views on some methodological aspects of social science, social fate of Russia.
Keywords: methodology; revolution; patriotism; integralism; fate of Russia
Magaril S.A. (“Sociological studies” journal, Russian State University for Humanities, Moscow, Russia)
Meanings of patriotism – historical transformation (142-151)
Abstract. The article discusses the semantic content of the notion of patriotism and its transformation in the public consciousness at different stages of development of the Russian society, forms of patriotism and mass behavior, patriotism as a heroic past and a decent national future. With regard to patriotism macrosocial strategy is critically evaluated of the main social groups of the modern Russian society. Author discusses existence of patriotism in authoritarian and democratic state, patriotism and loyalty to the political regime. Civic patriotism is seen as a historical resource of sustainable Russian statehood.
Keywords: patriotism; government; history; social groups; historical stability; political regime
Facts. Comments. Notes
Perednia D.G. (Academy of Management, Interior Ministry of Russia, Moscow, Russia)
Self-image and the perceived image of police in Russia (152-157)
Abstract. The article actualizes the problem of images of social institutions and government organizations in Russia, namely “the image of the police.” On the basis of author’s sociological survey a comparative analysis of various aspects of the image of the Russian police was carried out at the levels above society, inside society and inside organization involved. All this allowed to test the hypothesis of homogeneity and typical perception of police representatives among various social communities. Conclusions are offered, in particular that “the image inside police organization” and the image in the mass consciousness of citizens do significantly differ.
Keywords: image; “the image of own organization”; police; segmentation; comparative analysis; prestige of the profession; social tensions
Kutovaya S.V. (Institute for Complex Analysis of Regional Problems, Far East branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Birobidzhan, Russia)
Participation of marginalized groups in shaping the social space of the Far East (the case of Jewish Autonomous region) (158-162)
Abstract. The article aims to identify main stages of formation of social space in the Jewish Autonomous region and identify main marginalized groups involved in this process. It is revealed that transformations in the social space of autonomy – and in the entire Far Eastern territory, in fact, are associated with the effects of marginalized groups. Effects of marginality are involuntary for the population of the region due to certain external and internal factors.
Keywords: marginal group; the migrant; social structure; social space; people
Reflecting on a New Book
Romanovsky N.V. (Russian Academy of Scences, “Sociiological Studies” journal)
Historical macrosoclology: a presentation (163-167)