2016 ¹ 4
Romanovsky N.V. Discourse of crisis of(in) contemporary sociology (3-12)
Abstract. The paper introduces results of an analysis of sociology’s crisis evaluations in recent years. Contemporary crisis of world economy and issues of sociology development serve as framework. Context and contents of ongoing discourse are specified as well as ideas about present and future of sociology expressed in course of debate, of what and how impacts shape developing trends in our discipline. Often what is refered to as crisis by participants of the discourse, reflects in fact efforts to further sociological theories, methodology and methods in order to, if not to achieve a break-through into the future, to develop sociology in its efforts to master the challenges it faces. Crisis discourse is ultimately seen as a means to perceive sociology’s future and it helps us to understand what shape is sociology in now.
Keywords: crisis; crisis of sociology; crisis of empirical sociology; post-colonial sociology; Russian sociology
Yanitzky O.N. Do we need a new paradigm of sociology? (reflecting on an U.Beck’s concept) (13-22)
Abstract. The article analyzes theoretical and methodological toolkit of “cosmopolitan sociology” proposed by Ulrich Beck (1944–2015); reviewed and commented are its key concepts: anthropological shock, future, global risk, the cosmopolitan community, metamórfosis, paradigm shift, social metabolism and social order. The author concludes that heuristic potential of evolutionary sociology has not yet been exhausted, its tools are still suitable for studying global challenges, critical transformation of social order, processes of social metabolism, as well as for building models of desired futures.
Keywords: anthropological shock; future; global risks; cosmopolitan sociology; metabolism; social order
Rybakovskiy L.L. “Efficiency” as basic index for the state and trends in natality (23-30)
Abstract. The article deals with the interpretation of such related concepts as efficiency and productivity, the application of the concept of “efficiency” to different social spheres. The paper presents author's position on the applying concepts of efficiency and productivity in the demographic field, formulates the position that it is methodologically wrong to apply “efficiency” concept to those processes where costs and benefits are characterized by heterogeneous gauges. The paper suggests ways of isolating the direct impact of measures on the effectiveness of population policies, that is calculations showing effectiveness of implemented measures to stimulate the birth rate in Russia since 2007. For this purpose, in addition to statistical information and sociological data, by means of which assessed was significance of various measures aimed at increasing the birth rate, including such as the federal and regional maternity capital. In conclusion it is stated that approaching demographic hollow “attenuation” of productivity of the applied measures in the field of stimulating birth rate threatens future demographic development of Russia.
Keywords: Effectiveness; fecundity; productivity; structural factors; comparative method; standardization; reproductive contingent; fertility
Nekhoda E.V., Solovieva N.N. The waves of migration on the Russian labour market (31-36)
Abstract. The results of labour migration monodisciplinary research are restricted by migration’s complex socioeconomic nature. Heterogeneous labour migration flows require creation of differentiated measures to manage labour migrants' employment. Application of interdisciplinary synthesis to sociological studies of the Russian migrant labour market and to Russian official statistics will help to solve these issues by demonstrating Russian migrant labour market segmentation and waves of migrants’ assignments.
Keywords: labour migration; interdisciplinary synthesis; economic sociology; waves of migration
Grebenyuk A.A., Polezhaeva D.A. The motives of return migration of Russian citizens who got higher education abroad (37-41)
Abstract. A “Global Education” program is launched in Russia. The purpose of this project is to finance Russian citizens’ getting master’s and PhD degrees abroad. After graduating Russians have to work for a company in Russia. Will the above program work effectively? It is necessary to understand what exactly motivates citizens of the Russian Federation to leave foreign countries and come back. For this purpose in-depth interviews were conducted with the Russians with higher education abroad and in Russia. As a result of research main motives for migrants’ return are folowing: to find a job in their field, to increase income, to reunite with the family, to start a family in the homeland, to apply the knowledge obtained, skills and abilities, to change type of activity, the sense of belonging to the native culture and desire to have similar sociocultural environment. These interviews show a potential of return migration of Russian citizens with higher education. Moreover, reintegration of the respondents is one of the most favorable in our country. The economic crisis and growing unemployment in some Western countries can stimulate the process of return. It will to a certain extent compensate for negative effects of the “brain drain” and to bring the advanced practices, competencies and skills needed for the development of Russian society.
Keywords: higher education abroad; educational migration; brain drain; motives for return migration; reintegration
Abylkalikov S.I. Natives of the former Soviet Union countries in contemporary Russia (42-49)
Abstract. The article analyzes the role of the natives of former republics of the USSR in the Russian population. Despite the fact that Russia is second only to the United States by the number of foreign-born in its population, only a small part of them are real international migrants. Among 11 million people not more than a third came to Russia after collapse of the Soviet Union and they are not repatriates and members of ethnic groups traditionally resident in Russia. Revealed are not only scale of resettlement (relocation), but also migrant stock (number of migrants) who remain to live in place where they settled for a long time. So the vast majority of immigrants from Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Abkhazia and South Ossetia live in Russia for more than 10 years continuously, and it is difficult to distinguish them from the locals. Besides that, the article reveales features of the transformation of major socio-demographic characteristics – ethnicity, age structure, level of education.
Keywords: census; lifetime migrants; integration of migrants
SOCIOLOGY OF GOVERNANCE AND ADMINISTRATION
Shcherbina V.V. Goal setting and goal ensuring, streamlining social technologies (50-58)
Abstract. The paper resolves following tasks: 1) refinement of social technologies (ST) specifics; 2) classification of types of streamlining social technologies (SST); 3) determination of specific features of the groups of barely studies subtypes of SST; one of which is aimed at streamlining activities, the other on the rationalization of social relations; one was created for the management tasks, the other for political practice, one uses the mechanisms of goal-rationality, the other those of communicative rationality; one is referred to by the author as goal setting, the other – as goal ensuring
Keywords: rationality; rationalization; rationality; communicative rationality; behavioral and activity standards; social practice; social technologies
Frolova E.V. Interaction of the population and local government: problems and new opportunities (59-64)
Abstract. Basing on expert opinions of municipal bodies top officials and also results of population polls the main problems in interactions of citizens and local government are analyzed. Directions of municipal activity of the population are: estimate, organization and control. The author offers mechanisms which provide reductions of level of estrangement in interactions of the population and municipal bodies top officials.
Keywords: municipal communities; local power bodies; municipal activity of the population; public control
SOCIAL POLITICS. SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Przhilenskiy V.I., Ogorodnikov A.Yu. Axiological foundations of social engineering: prospects for modernization of Russian society (65-74)
Abstract. The article analyzes the problem of the relationship of values and knowledge in the process of social engineering. Boundaries and possibilities for technological intervention in the natural functioning of the social order are considered in the context of the formation of the idea of phased modernization of society. Sociological research detected the cognitive and methodological potential model of interaction between values and knowledge suggested by G. Myrdal. Methodological issues in applying sociological knowledge to the process of development and realization of social engineering programs are considered as essential to unite values with the objective. The authors investigated the problem of preparations of a society and social engineers, managers, sociologists, experts to link values with objectified theoretical and empirical knowledge, in order to implement their programs of social technologies. On the basis of sociological research among Russian youth the social determinants are discussed that form new values’ structures and backbone models of social practices. On the basis of empirical data we state that the institutional environment is perceived as unstable, where processes completely depend on subjects of power, decisions of certain strong personalities. Conclusions of authors of article from empirical research speak of essential barriers for institutionalization of innovations and reproduction of successful sociocultural experience, of insufficient potential of social activity of modern Russian society for system transformations, innovative development and a reorganization of society. In the next five years no more than a quarter of young people will begin to join on own initiative active social designing of the Russian society. Therefore, G. Myrdal's formula does not work either in social designing, or in social engineering in general – we have no ready set of values, invariant to social determinants. Society represents communicative process where there is formation of new and critical reconstruction of the former goals and values-a fact setting opportunities and borders for social engineering.
Keywords: system of values; social activity; construction of social reality; subjective social participation; social order
Liga Ì.B., Shcetkina I.À., Poyarkova Z.D. Disabled people assess effects of the state program “Accessible Environment” (75-78)
Abstract. One of the main tasks of the Russian state at the present stage is to create conditions for active inclusion of people with disabilities in society, the use of their intellectual and labor potential. In the paper, results of a sociological study are presented of the state program “Accessible Environment”, conducted by the Trans-Baikal regional public organization “Association of social workers” and Trans-Baikal State University under the grant for the provision of subsidies to socially-oriented non-profit organizations of Trans-Baikal Territory.
Keywords: disability; accessible environment; the model of disability; quality of life
Veremchuk V.I., Krutilin D.S. Religious situation in the Armed Forces (79-88)
Abstract. The article reveals specific social interaction of religions with military domain of the society on the basis of investigation of current religious situation in the Armed Forces of Russia. The article draws attention to the fact that the basis of attraction for a majority of Russian serviceman to religion lies in social cultural tradition which determines their orientations to traditional confessions, first of all to Orthodox Church. Empirically, authors substantiate the thesis that religious identification of overwhelming number of servicemen who consider themselves believers is determined mainly by outside factors connected with positive social appraisal of the religious institution in the society, by high level of confidence in it on the part of considerable number of Russian citizens. Authors point out several types of servicemen depending on the degree of their religiousness, assess interconfessional tolerance of servicemen, and show an increasing level of proneness to conflict on the part of servicemen professing Islam vs. believers of other confessions. The article pays attention to the fact that the servicemen who consider themselves as believers display a degree of satisfaction with military service sufficiently higher than that of respondents who consider themselves unbelievers. Authors discuss effectiveness of newly introduced post of military priests (assistants of commanding officer to work with believing serviceman in formations and military units (ships)), and outlook for military-confessional cooperation.
Keywords: religion; religious situation; religious institution; religiousness; Armed Forces; servicemen
Karlova E.N. Staff support of military science: experience of scientific units (89-93)
Abstract. The paper highlights experience of scientific units in the Russian Armed Forces. These units contribute to the strengthening of confidence to the army. Service in scientific units meets the requirements of humanization, allows to combine compulsory military service with the acquisition of new experiences, cultural and social capital. Scientific units are superior to traditional military service by conscription on the parameters of efficiency of conscripts’ labor, safety of military service, human development of the soldier. Scientific units effectiveness is built on a set of factors, among them most important are: inclusion of military personnel in relevant research projects and appointment of competent tutors, proper allocation of time and possibility to implement academic results into practice. Data analysis showed that not all units involved in the study fully meet these conditions, there were differences in the level of satisfaction with the service in various units. Conscripts identified some problems typical for Russian science in general: underfunding, weak technical laboratory facilities, lack of implementation of scientific results. There are also some specific challenges for the military-scientific complex: limitations on scientific communication and access to information sources. Despite this, majority of scientific units servicemen are not disappointed with their choice and believe that military science is on the rise. Author concludes that the project to create scientific units has proved to be a success and has great potential for development, it contributes to the support of human resources of military science. At the same time, scientific units do not solve systemic problems: relationship of science with industry, unattractiveness of employment in organizations of the military-scientific complex for civilian youth, inadequate laboratory and technical capacities, insufficient funding, etc.
Keywords: military sociology; military scientific units; conscription; humanization; military-scientific complex
SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH AND MEDICINE
Kononova A.E. Socioeconomic factors of children health in Russia (94-102)
Abstract. This paper examines relationship between socioeconomic status and physical health in childhood. Social factors of health inequalities are a prominent research topic of study in recent decades. Results suggest that social and economic factors – including economic resources, living conditions, education, life style – affect health outcomes. These findings are verified for many countries regardless of measurement methods. And it is true across lifespan from birth and childhood to adulthood. It is especially worth paying attention to children’s health because bad health in childhood is burdened twice – in addition to family expenditures on health care and medicines due to child’s disease – poor health leads to lower level of human capital in future. This paper uses Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey data to estimate role of social and economic factors in children’s health in Russia. Analysis was performed on a subsample of 0-6 year olds. Information about children's parents and households was matched to this subsample. Several health indicators were tested – permanent health perception, chronic conditions, and transitory health state. The results of the study show that all types of child health measurement are significantly connected to maternal health state and mothers’ behavior, especially alcohol consumption. The findings provide no support for hypothesis about crucial role of main socioeconomic factors in health – family welfare, maternal education, mother’s age, marital status, and employment status. These results provide evidence that there is a huge difference between key social factors of children health in Russia and most other countries. It is suggested that the reason for this fact is that Russian socioeconomic groups are likely not so different in behaviors, attitudes toward health life style, access to quality medical care as are social classes in other countries.
Keywords: socioeconomic status; child health; life style
Pavlenko E.V., Petrova L.E. Readiness of Russian doctors to use latest ICT in healthcare (103-110)
Abstract. The authors have attempted to identify a number of objective and subjective factors impeding the effective integration of information and communication technologies into the Russian healthcare. Objective factors include low technical equipment of health facilities, staff of doctors, low level of health care. Subjective factors are determined by issues such as distrust of doctors and patients towards e-health, low professional activity of doctors on the Internet, focus on technocratism to the detriment of the humanization. Survey of medical students (n = 315) and practitioners (n = 368), as well as semi-formalized interviews with physicians (n = 13) showed a low willingness of professionals to use the potential of ICT in health care. The desire to use the resources and technology of the Internet to improve the quality and accessibility of health care is more visible among medical students, rather than practicing physicians.
Keywordsinformatisation of health-Care; socio-cultural features of a professional group of physicians; e-Health
Àndreev I.L., Nazarova L.N. Philosophical and sociological problems of mental health (111-118)
Abstract. An unspent resource for productive development of the Russian sociological theory is active use of achievements of domestic neurophysiology and philosophical anthropology in the interpretation of the relationship of brain, mind and human behavior. The article was written by a philosopher-anthropologist and a psychiatrist-narcologist. They – from the standpoint of biological evolution of the brain and of the historical development of intelligence – investigated mental health problems of society in information and computer age as the subject and object of contemporary sociology. The results can be valuable for planning, conducting and interpretation of opinion polls.
Keywords: people; society; sociology; brain; consciousness; behavior; health; disease; psychological dependence; psychiatry; pediatrics; gerontology
Boronoev A.O. Problem of sociological education models: experience in sociologists’ training at the faculty of sociology of St.-Petersburg State University (119-123)
Abstract. The paper presents the main formation stages of sociological education in Russia and 23 years experience of the faculty of sociology in St.-Petersburg state university. Particular attention is paid to the formation of the St.-Petersburg model of sociological education. This model is based on the experience of Russian and world sociology. It is shown that the model foundation is based on its fundamental character, pluralism and humanism related to the traditions of Russian subjective school. Main characteristics of the St.-Petersburg model of sociological education are compared to experiences of other sociological groups of the country. The role of international cooperation in developing the St.- Petersburg model of sociologists’ training is also presented. Author emphasizes that the quality of sociologist training and the future of sociology are associated with search of new forms of work. Under these circumstances the problem of the models of sociological education deserves collective discussion.
Keywords:Russian sociology; sociological education; institutionalization; models of education; education quality; sociological schools; prospects of sociology and sociological education
Mayorova-Shceglova S.N. Informal education of sociology students: new forms (124-126)
Abstract. The possible types of non-formal sociological education are described in this article. They are as follows: additional training courses and lectures, non-educational interaction of students, self-education using IT technologies. The author’s definition of non-formal sociological education is given in this article – acquiring knowledge and technology application of students’ skills in order to meet personal needs as needs of future professionals. Author describes distinction of non-formal and and informal, with which technology activities and practices of everyday life in modern society are more common to be learnt and used, not the professional skills. The ways of teaching in terms of this condition are also specified and described. The ways may be described as the creation of conditions, the selection and the assessment of proposed projects, information for students and their encouragement. The experience of the functioning of VCIOM basic chairs and competitions of young sociologists are also described. The author explains the function of interactive events, competitions, internships and students’ conferences. The author presents the data on low outcome from the online education and studying. The author evaluates interactive sociological materials as positive ones and audio courses as negative ones.
Keywords: non-formal sociological education; informal education; self-education; competencies; information technology (IT)
Balashov V.V., Patsula A.V., Lenkov R.V., Gaydukova E.A. Problem of motivating scientific activity of university students: an empirical study (127-130)
Abstract. The article presents the experience of moivating univeristy students for empirical research and scientific activity. Questioning students winning university competitions of student grants the authors have obtained valuable qualitative information. The aim of the study was to monitor the situation regarding motivation fromation for scientific activity of students in the university. Our working hypotheses were confirmed regarding research mainly of cognitive character, the perception of this work by students as part of preparation for the future professional activities of varying significance of basic motives depending on the criterion of gender and of belonging to the various basic educational programs. The questionnaire for the survey of students was adapted for further comparative large-sample research.
Keywords: motivation; motives; scientific research work; the students of the university; teaching; questioning; monitoring research
THE FIRST STEPS
Îvetchkina Ya.V. The lifestyle of representatives of the downshifters’ internet community (131-137)
Abstract. This article analyzes the lifestyle of the members of the downshifters’ Internet community in Russia. Sociological analysis of the phenomenon of downshifting on the Internet allows to analyze the way of life “beyond” lifestyle in a consumer society. Analysis of the characteristics of the lifestyle of downshifters (organization of work, financial issues, shopping, economy and device life, nutrition, relation to medicine, health, education, leisure) allows to define it as retreatism.
Keywords: consumer society; online community; downshifting; downshifters
Shabalina O.A. “Soviet” private diaries: experience of qualitative research (138-141)
Abstract. The author uses qualitative research method of “understanding the text” in studying 21 notebooks of F.E. Dostovalov private diary focussing on two themes – “Faith in the communism ideals” and “the Road to God”, that most acutely reflect the world outlook and value contradictions in the “Soviet person – homo soveticus” image analyzing them in the context of the time.
Keywords: Soviet person; historical memory; qualitative methods; private diaries; values; religion; Soviet ideals
Sakaeva Ì.Ì. Businessmen in representatives state bodies of Russian Regions: Numbers and incomes for entrepreneurial activity (142-146)
Abstract. If business owner decides to become a member of regional and municipal legislative bodies, it means that institutional division between politics and economics is weak. The research is about the phenomenon (political and economical at the same time) within Russian local communities – numerous entrepreneurs within regional parliaments and municipal legislative bodies. Numbers, gathered by the author, have showed that small and large business is interested in political participation and their representatives are likely to be elected to regional parliaments. Qualitative data illustrate the picture in one federal okrug. Using the theory of property rights and qualitative data, the author analyzes what kind of opportunities an entrepreneur with political status has in order to protect his (her) property rights. Qualitative research was made in two Russian cities and shows the reality both in large and small towns. Research is questioning conditions and interests, which entrepreneurs have moving to politics. Finally, it was figured out, that parliament is the window of opportunities, which requires following particular game rules. The research found out that entrepreneurs are interested in deputy status under three conditions: high risks of business activity, low level protection of private property and widespread practices of 'privatization' of institutions by groups, individuals and organizations. Entrepreneurs are interested in deputy mandate, because it lets them to avoid or minimize risks, produced by the state and market.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; business environment; informal relations; deputies; regional parliament
Kravchenko S.A. On the results of the 2015 European sociological association conference (147-154)Kuchenkova A.V. Transcending Eurasian territories: administering, comprehending, identities (155-156)
LETTER TO EDITORS
Gorbuleva Ì.S., Ìelik-Gaykazyan I.V., Ìelik-Gaykazyan Ì.V. Why Russian animal protectors are as they are and why do they act they dî? (157-158)
Vafina Z.À. Nashe proshloye: nostal’ghitcheskiye vospominaniya ili ugroza budushchemu? (Our past: nostalgic memories or threat for the future? / Ed. by Î.B. Bozhkov. St.-Petersburg, 2015 – reviewed by Z.À. Vafina (159-161)Golenkova Z.T., Zhvitiashvili A.S. Ìnatsakanyan Ì.Î. Postmodernizm: proiskhozhdeniye, priroda i mesto v sovremennoi sotsiologhii (Postmodernism: origins, nature and place in contemporary sociology) Ì., 2015 – reviewed by Z.Ò. Golenkova, À.Sh. Zhvitiashvili (162-165)Lisitsyn P.P. Sravnitel’haya sotsiologhiya: utchebnik (Comparative sociology: a textbook) / Ed. by A.V. Rezaev. St.-Petersburg, 2015 – reviewed by P.P. Lisitsyn (166-167)