Institute of Sociology
of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Gofman A.B. Two Comtes, Two Marx and Two Trends of Russian Social Thought. Lichnost. Kultura. Obshtchestvo (Personality. Culture. Society. International Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities), 2019, Vol. XXI, Issue 3-4 (103-104), pp. 112-123.



Gofman A.B. Two Comtes, Two Marx and Two Trends of Russian Social Thought. Lichnost. Kultura. Obshtchestvo (Personality. Culture. Society. International Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities), 2019, Vol. XXI, Issue 3-4 (103-104), pp. 112-123.
ISSN 1606-951X
DOI 10.30936/1606-951X-2019-21-3/4-112-123

Posted on site: 27.11.19

Search full text on Google Academia

Abstract

In this article some interrelationships between basic sociological ideas of Comte and Marx, on the one hand, and Russian sociological thought, on the other hand, are analyzed. Its well known that Comte was the founder of positivism in sociology, in other words of the ideas of scientism and naturalism, of the necessity to use in the social science of the objective method, rational, empirical and based on observation. This position he founded mainly in his Course of positive philosophy (1830-1842). But in his late works, namely in System of positive politics he demonstrated already the superiority of the opposite view point, namely subjective, anti-naturalistic, emotional. Although he insisted himself on the unity and continuity of these two approaches, we can acknowledge in his work the coexistence of the two opposite sociologies and, in a certain sense, of two Comtes, one positivist, and another anti-positivist. The Marxian doctrine contains the two similar theoretical and methodological positions; this point was already noted by the historians of social ideas. On the one hand, he was a positivist, a partisan of a true, objective science based on the using of the universal scientific method; on the other hand, he was a political activist who considered the practical social and political activity as a best method of social cognition. So, there were two Marx, as well as there were two Comtes, namely one objectivist, another subjectivist one. The influence of these both trends at Comte and Marx is founded in the Russian social thought of the XIXth and the beginning of XXth centuries. Some Russian Comtists and Marxists continued the objectivist trend in their respective works, while the another ones continued the opposite one. Herewith, the last trend in Russian thought became predominant. Some causes of this are analyzed in this article.