Institute of Sociology
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

MONTHLY

2015 11 (377)

ONTENTS. SUMMARIES

NW IDEAS IN SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND SOCIAL PRACTICE

BUZGALIN A.V. (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia); GRINBERG R.S. (Institute of Economics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia); KOLGANOV A.I. (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia) p.3

Global world in deadlock. Is there a way-out?

Summary. The authors of the paper offer their version of renovation to foster democratic, socially-oriented economic development, positively negating limitations of old practices, and propose ten steps towards synthesis of freedom, justice and solidarity in development. These steps require deep changes of economic model shaped in the present-day Russia. Moreover, without such changes there is no prospects for solving problems, which economic development of our country and of the world economy as well is hampered by. Key words: contradictions of globalization • new strategy for Russia • democratic social orientation of economic development • civil society 13 ROMANOVSKIY N.V. (‘Sociological Studies’ journal, Russian State University for Humanities, Moscow, Russia) Future as a problem of contemporary sociology Summary. Interest for future comes back – thus one may assess recent shifts in publication topics in international sociology. Relevant data are presented and foci in world sociological periodicals publications on this trend are analyzed, in particular reaction in academic and public circles to T. Piketty’s forecast of growing – up to 2070th – wealth polarization. Tentative issues for discussions among Russian sociologists of their country’s future are offered along with characteristics of dicourse of future of our country stressing key role in it of sociology and historical sociology. Mainlines of relevant empirical research accents are formulated.

y words: sociology of future • world sociology • discorse of future • T. Pikettty • social conflicts • historical sociology • future of Russia

THEORY. HODOLOGY

ABEND G. (New York University, New York, N.Y., USA)

Meaning of ‘theory’ in sociology p. 23

y words: varieties of theories • scientific explanation • deductive-nomological model • social constructivism • discourse practices in theories

GOFMAN .B. (National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Conceptual Approaches to Analysis of Social Unity p. 29

Summary. Conceptual aspects of social unity and their interrelations are discussed. Semantic analysis of concepts depicting social unity is offered. Author distinguishes two types of social integration designated as “integration of society” and “integration with society”; or “integration in society”; in latter case its meaning is closely related to those of “adaptation”, Contents. Summaries 171 “socialization”, and “inclusion”. Besides, two other aspects of social integration, namely social cohesion (solidarity, consensus), on the one hand, and social regulation (rules, norms and values), on the other hand, as well as the interaction between them, are analyzed. Crucial role of “abstract rules” in the 21st century large societies, including Russian one, is emphasized. According to author, two forms of social integration – cohesion and adherence to abstract rules – are fused in civil solidarity and civil society.

Key words: social unity • social integration • cohesion • rules • civil solidarity

SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION

KONSTANTINOVSKIY D.L., POPOVA E.S. (both – Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Youth, labor market and expansion of higher education p. 37

Summary. Successful cooperation between social institutions is crucial for development of society in positive direction. Modern economy, especially, demand for specialists with different skills and professions to be fully satisfied; it needs a well-educated and motivated labor force. Meanwhile new requirements to employees constantly arise: he/she should be educated in such a way as to be able to improve his/her skills and be flexible according to changes in the labor market. Moreover, having only professional skills is not enough today. Modern society needs citizens who are ready to be responsible for the destiny of the country, for the destiny of their own families, for their own life trajectories. It is also crucial that young people should be given opportunities to choose their educational and professional trajectory on their own in accordance to their abilities, interests and aspirations. This is a subject of a new project, supported by the Russian Science Foundation and implemented by the Institute of Sociology, RAS. The first results of the analysis of the empirical data are described in the article. The young people aspirations for education and labor are considered, as well as an attempt to forecast chances to aspirations’ realize them is made. Attention is given to the fact that tendency of young people to enter educational institutions complies with international development trends, and their positive motivation to work is the key for the future progress and the most important value component of social well-being. It makes a great interest to see how younger generation will be able for self-realization in present-day society they enter.

y words: education • labor market • youth • choice of profession • social behavior • trajectories in education and profession

KLIUCHAREV G.A. (Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

“Rupture” of education and labor market: experts’ opinions p. 49

Summary. The social and economic changes, which happened for the last two decades in Russia, created essentially new context to which both the education system and participants of labor market – employers and employees have to adapt. How successful was this mutual adaptation? To what degree “outcome” of education system (qualification and educational potential) are accepted by the Russian labor market? In the article on the basis of 120 expert interviews, conducted with employers, recruiting agencies, regional officials, top university representatives – we are searching the answers, exploring the trends in this domain. It is shown that main tendency – discrepancy of the available quantity and quality of the trained university postgraduates does not meet structure and demand shown by employers. In some cases, universities and students provide simulation (simulacrization) of vocation training. The reason for this can be found in structural unemployment and in considerable lag of the level of educational sphere from real requirements of labor market. Underexploitation of qualification, competencies and educational potential confirms existence of effect of ‘rupture’ of the educational services spere from requirements of labor market.

Key words: vocational training • employment • job matching • simulation (simulacrization) in education

DEMOGRAPHY. IGRATION

VOZMITEL A.A., YAKOVLEVA M.N. (both – Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Attitude to emigration in contemporary Russian province p. 57

Summary. The goal of the article is to research problems of potential emigration from Russian provinces. The attitude to emigrate from Russia is one of the most important generalized 172 11, 2015 indicators of problems of the country. External and internal factors determining this attitude are analysed on the basis of data of representative regional research in 2013. External factors are social, economic and political living conditions in the Russian provinces. Internal factors are value orientations, attitudes, requirements. Three types of attitudes, and, respectively, three markedly differing groups of respondents are shown. The first group of “the disoriented, practical people” aims to leave Russia forever. They are, mainly, young people sharing the idea “to be able to enjoy life pleasures” ready to work only for good money or those who do not want to work at all, but dream of fast material success. The second group – “optimists” self-actualize themselves in the homeland and want to leave Russia for a while. Their main value orientation is interesting work allowing to show their abilities and talents. Desire to self-actualize themselves, to expand scale and space of their life and activity are main reasons for leaving Russia. The third group of “traditionalists” would not leave the country under any circumstances. People, usually elderly, with family, sharing civilized traditional values of Russian-Soviet way of life do not want to leave Russia. They are not aiming at material success at any cost, try to live by the truth, conscience, justice and are ready to do at their work everything they can irrespective of the salary size. It is shown that different systems of value orientations and needs are cornerstone of these distinctions. Their conflict with existing social and economic and social and political conditions is main reason for leaving Russia. Today aspiration to emigrate is closely connected to uncivilized character of Russian labor market and lack of stable vertical social mobility channels.

Key words: emigration • standard of living • way and quality of life • values, needs • social situation • power

IVANOVA E.I. (Russian State University for Humanities, Moscow, Russia)

Social vector of migratory mobility of contemporary Russian citizens p. 66

Summary. The article deals with the experience of quantitative estimates of potential migratory mobility in various representative sociological surveys, with analysis of dynamics and perspective directions of population movement, structure of migratory flows, and with migratory intentions. Results of survey “Life-world of Russian citizens and evolution of forms of their activities in state and social reforms” conducted in 2014 (all-Russia representative sample included 1750 persons from 18 regions of the country) help to depict specifics of the migratory mobility of population in contemporary Russia. The author outlines three social vectors of migratory flows: demographic, social-status, and professional. The article shows that mainly young people plan to emigrate, and that this intention is counterbalanced by more representative plans, such as: travel, temporary jobs and other ways of world cognition.

Key words: Migratory mobility • emigration • migratory flows • migratory intentions • social and demographic structure • professional structure • social status

ZAUSAEV V.K. (Far Eastern Research Institute of Market Economy, Khabarovsk, Russia)

Migration processes in the Russian Far East: sociological estimation p. 73

Summary. This article presents a study of problems of forming sustainable demographic potential in the south of the Russian Far East. Territory of this region displays real challenges to economy and infrastructure isolating the region from the rest of Russia. In the period of market reforms negative factors gained strength forming a stable negative migration balance. Far Eastern Research Institute of Market Economy investigated main factors for migration of local residents of model place (Khabarovsk city) using sociological estimations. More complex conditions of life are not compensated by the state. Primary objective here is retention of standard residential population by providing institutional actions that can form a developed economy and good living environment.

Key words: resident population • degree of rootedness • depressing factors • migratory sentiments • comfortable environment

ETHNOSOCIOLOGY

DROBIZHEVA L.M. (Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Research University, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia )

The potential of interethnic consent. Comprehension of the concept and social practice in Moscow p. 80

Summary. The concept of interethnic consent and its understanding in mass consciousness reveal themselves as directions of the State national policy. Concepts of the interethnic Contents. Summaries 173 relations and interethnic consent and its components are theoretically discussed. Balance of positive and negative ethnic attitudes of Muscovites (Russians and other nationalities) against the background of 2014 IS RAS polls in Russia is analyzed. It is found out that pragmatic attitudes are corrected by general values, ideas about goals of societal development, level of trust and civil identity. Distinctions between ethnic groups do not exceed 10%, except for the idea of equal rights (difference here is more than one-third).

Key words: interethnic consent • interethnic attitudes • interethnic trust • national values • state and civil identity

SFIN F.G., KHLIULINA .I. (R.G. Kuzeev Institute of ethnological studies, Ufa Academic Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia)

Russian language role in development of all-Russian civic identity in poly-ethnic region (the case of the Republic of Bashkortostan) p. 90

Summary. The process of assuming sovereignty and post-Soviet development of national republics made profound changes in the sphere of national and civil identity. The article is based on the results of All-Russian population censuses of 2002 and 2010 and ethnosociological surveys. It aims is to discover role of the linguistic factor in the formation and development of Russian identity in a multinational republic (Bashkortostan) in the context of national and civil identity display depending on the social and psychological views of respondents. Linguistic factor plays a great role in the formation of identity. The language is a basis which a person is brought up with thus influencing person’s identity. Analysis of the knowledge of languages shows that, in spite of measures to foster native languages in the republic, we can notice vast spread of Russian language. Percentage of people knowing Russian among almost all non-Russian nations is higher than of those knowing language of their nationality. Moreover, this figure is increasing from census to census. According to the data of the population census in Bashkortostan, 98,7% of people stressed that they know Russian. In the sphere of ethno-national relationships where civil identity is being formed and displayed, feeling of community with the citizens of Russia is dominant among Russianspeaking Bashkirs and Tatars. The latter show a greater percentage of those who consider themselves to be representatives of both Bashkortostan and Russia than Bashkir-speaking Bashkirs and Tatar-speaking Tatars.

Key words: identity • Russian nation • civil identity • Russian language • linguistic factor • native language • ethno-national relationships • regionalism

MILITARY SOCIOLOGY

OBRAZTSOV I.V. (Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia)

Sociological Research among the Troops during World War II: Analysis of International Experiences p. 97

Summary. Present analysis of foreign experience in conducting sociological research in the armed forces is timed to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II. This paper points out mainlines of research, its scope, research methods, management of research, and its key findings, which are exemplified by US Army experience. The article also examines the contribution social scientists made to the defeat of the enemy. The focus is set on research on sources and factors of high morale of Wehrmacht. Respective findings enabled Allied military command to develop effective measures to undermine military capability of Germany. The article also infers how much the research contributed to the development of a new branch of sociology – military sociology.

Key words: the army • the military • military sociology • morale, sociological research • World War II • USA

MAKAROVA L.V. (Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia)

Great Patriotic war: what remains in personal memory? p. 107

Summary. The article describes how well do Russians remember events of the World War II (known as Great Patriotic War in Soviet Union and Russia). The study highlights memories of key events that older generations share with younger people in private conversations. The author of the article singles out comparable war events and analyzes how much Russian youth know them. This aspect is particularly important as the people born after 1990th are the last generation having a chance to personallly converse with witnesses of 174 11, 2015 the war. The study has been conducted in two stages: during the first stage the pollees wrote about war events using testimonies shared by the eyewitnesses of the war. At the second stage these written texts were analyzed. Main sources of knowledge about war events were memories of family members, as well as conversations with school teachers and war veterans. The most frequently shared memories concern famine, losing loved ones, hard labor in the rear (especially child labor) and injuries. Surprisingly, a fair share of memories is related to hardships suffered under occupation and good treatment of occupied people by the Germans. The memory of war in younger peoples’ minds is associated with highest display of human efforts: sharing scarce food, sacrificing one’s life to save injured and Jews, brotherhood on the battlefield and love in life-long marriages. According to results of the study, almost all young Russians keep memory of the events of the World War II described by older generations. This memory does not contradict cultural memory or the ideas contained in official history textbooks. The only exception is the memory on Germans’ behavior, but it is always related to particular individuals and does not change definition of war as a sacred act of defending the land from the fascist occupants. Personal memory of the youth is always emotional, the pollees could not help admiring and worshipping war generations.

Key words: historical memory • Great Patriotic War • youth • personal memory

SOCIOLOGY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH

RUDAWSKA I. (Szczecin University, Szczecin, Poland)

Modeling service quality in integrated healthcare p. 115

Summary. The purpose of this paper is to identify and define dimensions and indicators of a service quality model for Polish chronic patients in integrated healthcare settings. To identify the items and clusters of quality elements, a three-step methodology has been applied: literature review, Delphi study, and Concept Mapping. The literature study resulted in 91 elements of integrated care. The two Delphi rounds were carried out to determine importance of identified items. Finally, Concept Mapping was used to cluster the elements. Multidimensional statistical analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were applied to design the quality model. Nine clusters have been ascertained and labeled. The identified items and clusters focus on patient pathway, patient centeredness, inter-organizational and intersectorial co-operation. The developed model could serve quality evaluation of integrated healthcare settings both in Poland, and in all countries facing healthcare reforms.

Key words: patient service • quality indicators • hierarchical cluster analysis • integrated healthcare

VIALYKH N.. (Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia)

Factors of social inequality reproduction in the sphere of medical services consumption p. 126

Summary. The paper is devoted to the problem of medical services consumption. The aim of this article is to identify and describe the features of medical behaviour based on the data of the author’s pilot sociological survey in Rostov-on-Don (N – 766). Particular attention is given to economic, organizational and socio-cultural dimensions of medical consumption. It is shown in detail how social environment and social position of a potential patient affect the production of help-seeking strategy and outcome of its realization. Results of study suggest that there are significant social differences in possibilities to get adequate and timely medical service in Rostov-on-Don. The figures show that inequality in access to medical services is determined by level of income, age, health status. Thus, compared to young persons who have high income, good health status, old persons and social groups wiht low income, chronic diseases report more difficulties in getting needed care and are less likely to have regular contacts with medical providers. Besides, socially vulnerable groups assess significantly lower availability and quality of medical services in the city. Economic, organizational and socio-cultural barriers in medical services, such as paid health, long waiting for help and lack of knowledge about healthcare system induce alternative consumers’ strategies: self-medication, unconventional treatment or rejection of professional medical services. In conclusion author stresses that the article is of certain significance to future fundamental empirical as well as theoretical research of cultural, social, institutional and biomedical factors of social differentiation in the health sphere.

Key words: consumption • medical services • help-seeking strategies • informal and formal payments • indicators of medical consumption • accessibility of medical care

IVANOVA A.E. (Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics (FRIHOI), Ministry of Health, Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia)

Approaches to efficiency evaluation of measures towards inculcation of healthy lifestyle p. 132

Summary. The author provides the criteria to evaluate efficiency of measures for formation of healthy lifestyles using data of sociological survey conducted in three Russian regions. The results show statistically significant differences in value of longevity and respective motivation.

Key words: value of longevity • longevity motivation • wanted life expectancy • expected life expectancy

HISTORY OF SOCIOLOGY

SˇUBRT I. (Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Rebublic)

The Society of Individuals in N. Elias Figuration Sociology p. 139

Summary. An issue having been resolved by N. Elias are relationships of individual and society. While critically assessing both answers to this issue given by sociolosists of his time: indivdualism of Weber postulating humans as the basis of sociological thinking and Durkheim’s holism seeing this basis in the society as a whole, that is supra-individual social facts, Elias sees both answers as one-sided. His strategy is closer to that of G. Simmel, who had stressed something ‘third’ – what is located between individual and society combining both in a certain way. To designate this ‘third’ Simmel uses the term “Wechselwirkung”, and Elias speaks of figurations. The paper discusses to what degree this strategy was a success, its positive traits and resultant probloems.

y words: sociology • sociological theory • society • individual • individualism • holism • figuration

REZAEV .V., TREGUBOVA N.D. (both – St.-Petersburg State University, St.-Petersburg, Russia)

Communication and intercourse in N. Luhmann’s systems sociology p. 148

Summary. N. Luhmann’s systems sociology begins with the question: how is communication possible? Authors discuss logics of development and limitations of this theory proceeding from a reseach issue how is communication between people possible. Conclusion is made that intercourse should be seen as an important promising line in contemporary theoeretical sociology offering conceptual basis for a variety of sociological branches.

y words: intercourse • sociology of intercourse • interaction • communication • social relations

FACTS. COMMENTS. NOTES

KUPRIYANOV B.V. (National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow, Russia)

Children’s leisure activities. Two generations of Russians according to the results of sociological survey p. 156

Summary. On the basis of sociological survey results’ among parents envolved in programs of additional education, authors provide detailed characteristics of leisure activities of children and respective data on children’s leisure as seen by parents. The text sets out structure of free time students, content of leisure studies, examine use of infrastructure facilities, and organizing children’s leisure class.

Key words: children’s activities • different generations • socio-cultural reproduction • leisure activity of schoolboys • public infrastructure of leisure activities

HUSNUTDINOVA Z.. (M. Akmulla State Pedagogical University, Ufa, Russia)

Teenagers’ suicidal behavior p. 161

Summary. Suicidal behavior of siblings is studied. This approach yielded answers to questions how do approximately similar living conditions and family education affect development of certain diseases. 90 teenage drug users and their 90 siblings (as control group) were involved in project. Families were also found out where both siblings under study were living together and studying in the same school. Special survey maps were designed and used in the study.

y words: teenagers • suicide • siblings • drugs

ACADEMIC EVENTS

ULESHOVA .V. Grushin continues: from conference to congress p. 164

DIDENKO S.Yu. Russian everyday routines under conditions of crisis: how do we live and feel? p. 167

NGALYTCHEVA R.. New trends in socio-cultural changes in Korean and Russian societies p. 168

ANNIVERSARY

GOFMAN A.B. p. 29

CONTENTS. SUMMARIES p. 170

SOCIS-online

BOOK REVIEWS

(reviewed are: Kravchenko S.. Sotsiocul’turnaya dinamika edy: riski, uyazvimosti, vostrebovannost’ gumanistitsheskoi biopolitiki (Social cultural dynamics of food: risks, vulnerabilities, demand for humanist biopolitics. ., 2014 reviewed by .N. Yanitskiy; Boronoev .. Sotsiologhiya i sotsiologhicheskoye obrazovanie v Sankt-Peterburgskom gosudarstvennom universitete: k 25-letiyu fakul’teta sotsiologiy (Sociology and sociological education in St.-Petersburg State University: on occasion of 25th anniversary of sociological department. ., 2014 reviewed by E.S. Bogomiakova and M.V. Lomonosova p. 177